Microbial Biosystems Journal

Microbial Biosystems Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Arab Society for Fungal Conservation
  • Country of publisher: egypt
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Apr/07

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Science Education, Microbiology, Ecology
  • Publisher's keywords: Behavioral Ecology, Microbial Ecology, Microbial Biofuels, Pollution, Microbial Biofuels, Physiological Ecology, Cultural Heritage and Microbes
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 150USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '18' articles

Mycological discoveries in the Middle East region in the second part of the last century

Mycological discoveries in the Middle East region in the second part of the last century

Authors: Mouchacca J
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

The arid Middle East extends over 9 million km² in the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Interest in the fungi of this region after the Second World War led to the discovery of species then regarded as being new to Science. A scan of the Index of Fungi issued in the period running from 1940-2000 revealed that 240 novel taxa had then been proposed. The recorded novelties were examined following the chronology of their introduction, their distribution in the local fifteen political states and their gross taxonomic characters at the Class level. These new additions were characterised at the rate of 40 units / decade. Most originated from Egypt, Iraq and the Palestine-Israel area and relate to the Classes Mitosporic Fungi, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. All together 145 generic names are reported in this group of novelties; twelve were based on type material collected in Egypt (5 genera), the Palestine-Israel area, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon and Sudan. The present group of novelties was also surveyed in relation to the nature of the substrate sustaining the selected holotypes. The relevant Mitosporic fungi (93 taxa) were equally isolated from soil or from living or decaying plant parts. For Ascomycetous novelties (86 taxa), although their soil-borne elements outnumber the plant related ones, several also developed on other types of substrates. In the case of novel Basidiomycetes (37 taxa), the plantparasitic species encompass those collected on the ground surface. Finally, a limited number of these novelties disclosed notable thermotolerant abilities and some even qualify as thermophiles. The main features of these novel records underlines that in Egypt more attention was awarded to the local Mitosporic fungi and to Ascomycetes inhabiting its soil-borne communities. For the Basidiomycetes (sensu lato) marked interest developed solely in the Palestine-Israel area while in Iraq taxonomic studies focussed on Ascomycetes including those developing on dung substrates. The distribution of the few reported Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes and ‘Oomycetes’ also proved to be restricted to the former three states. Present data clearly underlines limited interest has been awarded to the fungi of a region presumed to harbour a specific mycobiota due to its marked arid features. Since 1940, only four novel taxa were thus proposed per annum from a small fraction of the Middle East. Future research should focus on plant related forms of lower (basal clades) and higher (Dikarya) fungi of the area. Conservation measures should also be adopted to ensure an adequate protection of the natural local habitats against the negative pressures generated by the increase in population and the detrimental effects of its activities. Finally, in view of the overwhelming implication of mycology in the fields of biotechnology, significant knowledge of the Middle East fungi is promising.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – Basidiomycetes – novel taxa – thermophiles – thermotolerants
A checklist of Egyptian fungi: II. Glomeromycota

A checklist of Egyptian fungi: II. Glomeromycota

Authors: Nafady NA, Abdel-Azeem AM, Salem FM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Information about arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was abstracted based on an intensive search of publications, thesis, and preliminary annotated checklists and compilations. By screening all available sources of information, it was possible to report forty-eight taxa belonging to one class (Glomeromycetes), four orders (Archaeosporales, Diversisporales, Glomerales and Paraglomerales) and six families (Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae, Entrophosporaceae, Gigasporaceae, Glomeraceae and Pacisporaceae). Order Glomerales accommodates the greatest range of species (28 species), the order Archaeosporales and Paraglomerales accommodate the lowest range (one species each).

Keywords: AM fungi – checklist – Egypt – Glomus – mycorrhiza – Saint Katherine
Nano-biotechnology breakthrough and food-packing industry- A Review

Nano-biotechnology breakthrough and food-packing industry- A Review

Authors: Helmy EA
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Nanobiotechnology has been renowned as extremely essential scientific and industrialized advancements that have the actual ability to renovate virtually each feature of lifetimes and economy. Chemical and physical methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles are the common approaches, but their use is limited because they are costly and harmful to the environment. In this method, the biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, plants were used to transform the organic metal into metal nanoparticles via the reactive capacity of proteins and metabolites present in these organisms. The biogenic synthesis using biological routes especially fungal pathways is, therefore, the best choice. The use of fungi in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been reported in several promising studies, since fungi contain enzymes and proteins as reducing agents and can be invariably used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles from their salts. Generally, microbial nanobiotechnology can adapt of packaging stuff, rising barrier characteristics, refining mechanical and heat-resistance, evolving functioning antimicrobial exteriors, and generates nano-biodegradable packaging stuffs. Improving intelligent packaging to elevate the nutritional goods validity timing via nanobiotechnology became the ambition of many corporations. This review will focus on tremendous benefits of nanobiotechnology in nutrition trade concerning Foodstuff Wrapping systems and materials. Such packaging (wrapping) structures would be able to fix minor holes/tears, react to ecological conditions as temperature and/or moisture changes and attentive the client if the food is spoiled. Nanobiotechnology has utilized in inventive improvement of biosensors for recognition of pathogens and chemical pollutants. Elaboration of food analytical approaches for the uncovering of tiny aggregates of a chemical and/or any microbial pollutant during food processing is an extra prospective practice of nanobiotechnology. This will leads to further safety for the food handling approaches.

Keywords: Biosynthesis – microbial nanobiotechnology – nanoparticles’fungal biosynthesis
Effect of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins on seed quality parameters of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Effect of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins on seed quality parameters of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Authors: Divakara ST, Aiyaz M, Chandra Nayaka S and Niranjana SR
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

The Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins are known to be detrimental to plant and animals affecting their productivity and yield. This study evaluated effects of toxigenic A. flavus and aflatoxins on physical parameters like seed germination, seedling vigor, root length, shoot length and also biochemical parameters like chlorophyll content, protein, sugars and amylase activity in sorghum seeds. The sorghum seeds were treated with 100, 250 and 500 μg ml-1 concentrations of aflatoxins and likewise, A. flavus spore suspension adjusted to 1x108 spores ml-1 were also treated to seeds in different treatments. The experimental results revealed maximum inhibition of seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, proteins, total sugars and α-amylase activity in the sorghum seedlings was observed at 500 µg ml-1 followed by 250 and 100 µg ml-1. But seed treatment with toxigenic A. flavus spore suspension showed slight inhibition all the above parameters tested when compared to untreated control, but there was no significant decrease was observed. The study highlighted negative effects of the A. flavus and aflatoxins on the tested seed quality parameters tested there by necessitating need of monitoring of toxigenic fungi and their metabolites in sorghum seeds.

Keywords: Amylase – Chlorophyll – Great millet – Mycotoxins – Seed germination and Seedling vigour
Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against particular human cancer cell lines

Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against particular human cancer cell lines

Authors: Younis AM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer resulted in 8.2 million human deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2013 to 22 million within the next two decades. Mushrooms are extensively used as nutritional supplements in many countries. Moreover, mushrooms have many medicinal properties, including anticancer activity. In this study, the anticancer activity of different polar and non-polar extracts of Hericium erinaceus were evaluated against different human cancer cell lines including human liver carcinoma (Hep G2), the human colonic epithelial carcinoma (HCT 116), the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, as a control, the cytotoxicity effect of the different extracts were tested against isolated mouse hepatocytes. It was observed that the extracts by water and methanol from fresh and lyophilized fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had the strongest anticancer effect. In contrast, the extracts by ether and ethyl acetate from mycelia and broth of H. erinaceus showed lower anticancer activity against the tested carcinoma cell lines. The highest anticancer activity was recorded for aqueous extract of lyophilized fruiting bodies with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.1±0.2, 5.1±0.1, 5.7±0.2 and 5.8±0.3 µg/ml against Hep G2, HCT 116, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively with non-significant effect on the normal mouse hepatocytes. To summarise, polar extracts of H. erinaceus can be good sources for isolating natural anticancer compounds. I recommend further chemical studies to isolate the active principles of the extract of H. erinaceus evaluated in the present.

Keywords: Anticancer activity – Hericium erinaceus – monkey's head mushroom – mushroom extracts
Egypt’s national fungus day

Egypt’s national fungus day

Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

The International Union for Conservation of Nature has recognized that fungal conservation is just as important as animal and plant conservation, and has called on governments worldwide to pay much more attention to fungal conservation. Fungi are different from animals and plants. Since at least 1970, scientists have agreed that fungi belong in their own separate biological kingdom which is likely to contain far more species than the plant kingdom. Where plants produce and animals consume, fungi are the recyclers. Fungi are just as much threatened as animals and plants by climate change, habitat destruction, invasives, pollution, over-exploitation and even, in some cases, persecution. Habitats important for threatened fungi may be different from habitats important for threatened animals and plants. Biodiversity can only be conserved if the well-being of fungi is given as much consideration as that of animals and plants: without fungi life on earth would be unsustainable. Fungi provide enormously important ecosystem services (e.g. soil fertility, mycorrhizas, crop protection, litter decomposition, checks and balances). The economic value of such services has been estimated as running to trillions of US dollars. Fungi are also a very important source of unusual chemicals of great value in industry and medicine. The yeast used to make bread is a fungus, and many pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, statins and anti-cancer drugs are derived from fungi. Compared with many animals and plants, very little is known about fungi. That knowledge gap needs to be explicitly recognized and plans should be prepared to deal with that gap. In 2014 and 2016 Abdel-Azeem the founder of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC) proposed a good candidate for celebration of Egypt’s National Fungus Day on the 20th of February. Abdel-Azeem with the help of international societies, agencies and mycologists decreed the Egypt’s National Fungus Day in Bibliotheca Alexandrina in the 20th of February 2016 for the first time.

Keywords: Egypt’s national, fungus day
Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

Authors: Sheir DH, Hafez MA
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells) of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6) was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC) with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

Keywords: Bioprospecting – Egypt – Ketoconazole – Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 –resazurin
New record of Chaetomium iranianum MF787598 (Chaetomiaceae) for the Egyptian and African mycobiota

New record of Chaetomium iranianum MF787598 (Chaetomiaceae) for the Egyptian and African mycobiota

Authors: Blanchette RA, Held BW, Abdel-Azeem AM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

The first record of Chaetomium iranianum (Ascomycota, Chaetomiaceae) for the Egyptian and African fungi is reported here. The species was found during an extensive taxonomic and ecological revision of genus Chaetomium supported by Science and Development Technology Fund (STDF) in Egypt. Chaetomium iranianum identified phenotypically and was subjected to sequencing for confirmation of phenotypic identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1–5.8 s – ITS2 rDNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number MF787598 in the NCBI Database. We provide an updated full description and illustration of the species.

Keywords: Endobionts, Saint Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Teucrium polium, taxonomy
Re:-Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans by Sheir and Hafez (2017)

Re:-Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans by Sheir and Hafez (2017)

Authors: Van der Heul TM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

This paper shows a comprehensive study undertaken covering clinical samples of Candida collected from hospital, as well as samples of Streptomyces collected from soils; all of which were inoculated, incubated and monitored over time and at various temperatures to show the greatest analyses in the prevention and destruction of the Candida biofilm-forming fungus. The high inhibition activity of Streptomyces sp. (No.6) against the Candida sp. biofilms has been clearly demonstrated through various screening methods using DNA extraction and the resazurin method; its prevention and destruction modes compared with other antifungals and the evaluation of cytotoxicity for S. toxytricini Fz94 against human lung epithelial cells. In both the prevention mode and the destruction mode, Streptomyces sp. (No.6) showed a higher percentage effect against clinical C. albicans isolates than ketoconazole or metronidazole which showed the lowest in urine, sputum, pus, vaginal swabs and pleural fluids. This study shows great promise, not just for Egypt, but worldwide, in the prevention of both pre and post operative complications involving the use of prosthetics, catheters, joint replacements etc, that may initiate any form of bloodstream infection. Many patients are more susceptible to these forms of infections than others, and when their immune systems have been compromised due to illness, pain or other infection, their vulnerability to further infection increases. As a nurse I find this study fascinating. As the authors state in their conclusion, more chemical studies are required, however, the implications of what they have discovered are so encouraging that further studies in this field would likely generate interest from international medical research institutions. Research in health areas such as this can only bring about positive change.

Keywords: Antibiofilm, activity, Streptomyces, toxytricini
Amateur mycologists can assist to conserve fungi

Amateur mycologists can assist to conserve fungi

Authors: Van der Heul TM
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

The conservation of all members belonged to the forgotten kingdom (FUNGI) is overlooked all the time worldwide. Mycologists carry the responsibility to discuss these issues and communicate with public and politicians but what about amateur mycologists? This is a very heavy burden, as even the majority of scientists deny the true importance of fungi and their essential role in the conservation, recycling and protection of biomes. A hard mission for the amateur mycologists is to get the attention of decision makers and is even more difficult as national legislation is strongly focused on protecting of plants and animal and ignoring fungi. The amateur's role in the history of mycology in Australia dated back to the mid nineteenth century. For more than 24 years as amateur mycologist, I studied fungi close to Dalmeny, New South Wales, Australia and this work will shed the light on twelve species and their conservation status.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Dalmeny, Gliophorus graminicolor, Phallus multicolor
Biodiversity of macrofungi in Yenepoya Campus, Southwest India

Biodiversity of macrofungi in Yenepoya Campus, Southwest India

Authors: Karun NC, Bhagya BS, Sridhar KR
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Public and private institutions usually possess land space for buildings, play grounds, gardens, avenues and natural vegetation. Such landscapes possess diverse flora, fauna and microbiota. Inventory of biodiversity in the vicinity constitutes first step to follow the status of habitat based on diversity, carrying capacity and further steps for conservation or rehabilitation. The current study assessed macrofungal diversity in the Yenepoya Campus of southwest India in continuation of assessment of flora and fauna. This preliminary inventory was carried out in 10 habitats (three plantations, bamboo thickets, gardens, acacia groves, avenue trees, lawns, dumped wood and termite mounds), which yielded 40 species of macrofungi belonging to 31 genera. Among them, twelve species were edible, twelve species were medicinal, two species were ectomycorrhizal and finally one species was entomophagous. Substrates supporting macrofungi include soil (particolous), humus (humicolous), woody debris (lignicolous) and insects (entomophagous). Results showed an abundance of five species (Amylosprous campbellii, Daldinia concentrica, Lenzites betulina, Marasmiellus stenophyllus and Schizophyllum commune), 13 others were common and 22 species were occasional. In addition to flora and fauna, inventory of saprophytic macrofungi (involved in recycling the organic matter) occurring in an institution surroundings help designating the habitat as healthy or regenerated or impoverished to follow appropriate measures to maintain the status quo, rehabilitation and conservation. This study suggests possibilities of domestication and utilization of several edible, medicinal and ectomycorrhizal fungi in this area.

Keywords: Biodiversity, mushrooms, lateritic soil, leaf litter, woody litter
Physicochemical profile and Lactic Acid Bacteria genera inhabit Egyptian raw camel, sheep, goat, buffalo and cow milks

Physicochemical profile and Lactic Acid Bacteria genera inhabit Egyptian raw camel, sheep, goat, buffalo and cow milks

Authors: Darwish AMG, Allam MG, Ayad EHE
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Indigenous dairy products made of different milk sources are traditionally produced and consumed in a majority of African and Arabian countries. The aim of present study was to assess and compare physicochemical profile of camel, sheep, goat, buffalo and cow’s native milks in addition to isolation, identification and technological evaluation of their content of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) genera to introduce a wider image that facilitate applications of these pasteurized milks along with isolated LAB strains in dairy industry development. Milks were examined chemically and via Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Sixty strains out of two hundred sixty-eight of LAB were selected based on assessment of their technological properties. Chemically, sheep and buffalo milks showed the highest content of protein, fat and ash. Goat and sheep milks possessed high content of lactose, which encouraged the inhabitance of Leuconostoc sp. to represented 48% and 18% respectively of their total LAB isolates. Some strains showed exceptional autolytic, photolytic and antimicrobial features (10, 15 and 12 strains respectively). Obtained findings when correctly applied would lead to develop an innovative dairy processing in Egypt.

Keywords: FTIR, Functional properties, LAB Isolation, Native row milks, Phenotypic identification; Proximate analysis
Antifungal activity of some toothpastes and antiseptic solutions against yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of cancer radiated patients

Antifungal activity of some toothpastes and antiseptic solutions against yeasts isolated from the oral cavity of cancer radiated patients

Authors: Attia EA
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the antifungal efficacy of different types of toothpaste and some antiseptic solutions with varying concentrations against yeast isolated from the oral cavity of radiated patients suffering from head and neck cancer in radiotherapy unit in Suez Canal University teaching’s hospital, Egypt. Eight different species of yeast were isolated taxonomically, assigned to 1 phylum, two classes, one order, and three families and identified phenotypically. The antifungal activity of five kinds of toothpaste and three antiseptic solutions were investigated by agar well diffusion method against the eight isolated yeasts namely: Candida glabrata, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, Dipodascus geotrichum and Geotrichum beigelii and expressed as the value of the clear zone diameter, however, Their activity was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results showed that toothpaste no 1, 3, 4 and 5 were effective against all tested taxa by variable inhibitory degrees. However, no. 2 showed efficacy only against C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, and C. parapsilosis, Antiseptic solution no 1 showed the highest efficacy against all tested species except C. kefyr while no. 2 was effective against all the tested species except two taxa and finally no. 3 exhibited good antifungal activity against all the tested taxa. In conclusion, we recommended the use of toothpaste contained sodium monofluorophosphate, or sodium fluoride, as an active component followed by a mouthwash which contained Chlorohexidine or Cetylpridinium or miswak as active components to prevent colonization and development of oral candidiasis, especially in cancer patients.

Keywords: Candida, efficacy, Dipodascus geotrichum, Geotrichum beigelii, Suez Canal University
Functional attributes of ethnically edible ectomycorrhizal wild mushroom Amanita in India

Functional attributes of ethnically edible ectomycorrhizal wild mushroom Amanita in India

Authors: Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M
( 0 downloads)
Abstract

Functional qualities serve as valuable yardsticks towards consumer acceptability of foods and food products. This study evaluates functional properties of an ectomycorrhizal wild mushroom Amanita sp. occurring in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India. Based on the ethnic knowledge, immature cooked fruit bodies of this mushroom are edible. Standard protocols were followed to evaluate functional properties of uncooked and cooked immature fruit bodies (pH-dependent protein solubility; least gelation concentration; water- and oilabsorption capacities; emulsion and foam properties). The protein solubility was significantly higher in uncooked against cooked samples (pH 2-8, p<0.05). Cooking has not altered the least gelation concentration (14%). There was no significant difference between uncooked and cooked samples (p>0.05) despite water-absorption and oil-absorption capacities were higher in cooked samples. The emulsion activity (p<0.05), emulsion stability (p<0.05), foam capacity (p<0.01) and foam stability (p>0.05) were higher in cooked than uncooked samples. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) between proximal and functional properties reveals that the crude protein, total lipids and crude fibre influenced the protein-solubility, emulsion stability and foam capacity in uncooked samples. In cooked samples, the crude fibre and carbohydrates influenced all the functional properties studied except for protein solubility. It is assumed that the composition and proportion of proximal components influence the functional attributes of Amanita sp. The properties like high emulsion activity, emulsion stability and foam capacity in cooked mushroom will be useful in formulation of value-added foods or nutraceutical products.

Keywords: Scrub jungles, macrofungi, ethnic food, proximal qualities, nutraceutical source

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.