Effectiveness of carbohydrate diet restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin and incretin-based therapies

Effectiveness of carbohydrate diet restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin and incretin-based therapies

Journal

  • Journal title: Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences
  • ISSN: 2350-0964 (print) 2349-0659 (online)
  • Publisher: IJPMR Publishing Press, India.
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine, Health and Wellness
  • Publisher's keywords: Hypoglycemia, incretin-based therapies, insulin, low-carbohydrate diets, type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF
  • Time From Submission to Publication: 6

AUTHORS

    Raju Panta*, Panta

FULL TEXT

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ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of DM characterized by variable degrees of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance and progressive failure of pancreatic β-cells reduce insulin secretion and consequently increase blood glucose and free fatty acid levels. The deterioration of pancreatic β-cell function in T2DM leads to therapeutic failure of oral agents over time. Hence, the most T2DM patients ultimately require insulin therapy, which may cause hypoglycemia. Regular carbohydrate intake with respect to time and amount reduces the risk for hypoglycemia in DM patients on fixed daily insulin doses. In T2DM, obesity aggravates the metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Weight loss and exercise improve insulin resistance, glycemic control, and reduce risk factors in overweight and obese T2DM patients. Low caloric but healthful eating pattern promotes weight loss in overweight or obese T2DM adult patients. Incretins are released after ingestion of a meal augment the secretion of insulin and this account for the greater insulin response to oral glucose than to intravenous glucose. Incretin-based therapies along with reduced insulin doses sustain glycemic control without an increase in hypoglycemia or weight gain. The low-carbohydrate diets in T2DM patients on insulin and incretin-based therapies could increase the likelihood of hypoglycemia. Hence, as prevention of hypoglycemia is an essential part in the management of DM, the individualized dietary plan or eating pattern and adjustment of insulin and incretin doses should be considered for each patient based on his or her glycemic control.

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