Universa Medicina

Universa Medicina

Basic info

  • Publisher: Faculty of Medicine Trisakti University
  • Country of publisher: indonesia
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

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  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine, Biomedicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Biomedicine
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

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  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

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  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 1982
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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This journal has '36' articles

Shortening tends to increase aortic foam cell count and wall thickness in male Wistar rats

Shortening tends to increase aortic foam cell count and wall thickness in male Wistar rats

Authors: Rokhima Lusiantari, Miranti Dewi Pramaningtyas, Titis Nurmasitoh, Rachmi Hidayati Pattimura, Anggita Dewanti
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Abstract

Background Shortening is widely used as raw material for bread and other foods. Hypercholesterolemia increases aortic arch foam cell formation and abdominal aortic wall thickness. This study aimed to determine the effect of shortening on the number of aortic arch foam cells and abdominal aortic wall thickness in rats. Methods This study was of experimental posttest control group design. Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups. The negative control group (C-) received standard feed, the positive control group (C+) standard high-fat feed, group T1 shortening and standard feed at a ratio of 1:5 and group T2 shortening and standard feed at a ratio of 1:10. The interventions were given for 6 weeks through gavage. The foam cell count in the aortic arch and the thickness of the abdominal aortic wall were measured. One-way ANOVA test was used to analyze the data. Results There was no significant difference in the mean foam cell count of the aortic arch between the four groups C- (7.17 ± 4.17), C + (9.33 ± 7.01), T1 (11.83 ± 4.88) and T2 (9.33 ± 6.80) (p=0.598). The mean thickness of the abdominal aortic wall between the four groups C- (741.98 ± 60.67μm), C + (714.29 ± 90.59μm), T1 (838.90 ± 75.86 μm), and T2 (749.88 ± 99.37μm) also was not significantly different (p=0.110). Conclusion Shortening tends to increase the foam cell count of the aortic arch and the thickness of the abdominal aortic wall of rats.

Keywords: Shortening; histopathology; aortic arch; abdominal aorta; rats
Regular condom use tends to decrease cervical lesions in resident-commercial sex workers in Sub-Saharan Africa

Regular condom use tends to decrease cervical lesions in resident-commercial sex workers in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Bolaji Efosa Odigie, Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu
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Abstract

BACKGROUND Cervical lesions are abnormalities seen in tissues and cells examined from the uterine cervix. These abnormalities are on the increase and are ignored; thereby constituting major health problems in resident commercial sex workers (CSWs) who temporarily reside in brothels for sex business. Hence, we investigated the associations between behavioural risk factors and cervical lesions in resident commercial sex workers. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study among 119 resident commercial sex workers using questionnaires as the data gathering tool, liquid-based cytology for cervical lesions screening, and microscopy for examination of slides. Statistical analyses were conducted using Epi- Info™ version 6.4 and STATISTICA (StatSoft, version 5, 2009 Edition, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 USA). Data were analysed using multivariate and simple logistic regression analyses, while the level of significance was set at p £0.05. RESULTS The behavioural risk factors, like smoking and hard drugs, alcohol intake, commercial sex duration, client’s daily patronage and sex frequency were not significant apart, but regular condom use tends to decrease the cervical lesions in CSWs (OR=0.91;95% C.I. 0.92-1.06), including anal and oral sex (OR = 0.99 (95% C.I. 0.29-3.60). The patterns of cervical lesions further showed acute and chronic cervicitis with a prevalence of 10.1%, including low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We recorded 8/12 (66.7%) for acute cervicitis, 4/12 (33.3%) chronic, and 82.4% negative. CONCLUSION We suggest that behavioural risk factors are associated with cervical lesions and that regular condom use tends to decrease cervical lesions among resident CSWs.

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Imminent threat of antibiotic resistance and the importance of diagnostic and antibiotic stewardship

Imminent threat of antibiotic resistance and the importance of diagnostic and antibiotic stewardship

Authors: Erlangga Yusuf
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Abstract

Antibiotic is one of the hallmarks of modern medicine. Antibiotics have saved many lives that was unthinkable prior to the discovery of antibiotic. Yet, antibiotic use is associated with the danger of resistance of bacteria. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics means simply that antibiotics cannot be used to treat infection, that a simple skin and soft tissue infection may lead to death. Already in 1945, when Alexander Flemming received his Nobel Prize in 1945 for his part in the discovery of penicillin, he delivered a speech where he warned about this danger 1. In his speech, he mentioned the problem of underdosage of antibiotics. As the time passed by, we know that the problem is not only related to underdosage but also to other aspects of inappropriate use of antibiotics such as unnecessary use (for example when the infection is due to a virus), and extended duration of antibiotics

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Short-term aerobic exercise does not change kidney function in students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

Short-term aerobic exercise does not change kidney function in students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

Authors: Ihim Augustine Chinedu, Patrick Chinedu Obi, Egbe Josephat Udoka, Nosakhare Osakue, Donatus F. N. Ozuruoke, Emmanuel I. Nwobodo, S. C. Meludu, Chizoba...
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Abstract

Background Exercise has been known to have beneficial effects on human health. The kidneys play an important role in regulating acid-base and water-electrolyte balance disturbances induced by exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short term aerobic exercise (volleyball training) on the kidney function of apparently healthy individuals. Methods An experimental study of pre-post test design was conducted involving 41 amateur volleyball players, comprising 22 males and 19 females. They were randomly divided into seven different teams. Each team trained for at least 45 minutes for four consecutive days for two weeks. Both pre-and post-exercise blood pressure (BP) was measured using an automatic blood pressure measuring device OMRON 907 (OMRON, Hoofddorp, Netherlands). Likewise, both pre- and post-exercise blood samples were collected into lithium heparin tubes and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and the plasma separated into plain tubes. Electrolytes were analysed using ion selective electrode machine (SFRI 4000, Germany), urea using modified Berthelot method, creatinine using Jaffe-Slot method and uric acid using the uricase method and estimated glomerular filtration state (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Results The mean levels of pre- and post-exercise systolic blood pressure, creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and eGFR did not differ significantly (p>0.05). However, serum uric acid was significantly increased (p<0.05), while diastolic BP significantly decreased after exercise (p<0.05). Conclusion The study showed that short-term moderate intensity aerobic exercise does not have any significant effect on the renal functions.

Keywords: Short-term; aerobic exercise; kidney function; students
Decreased adiponectin level in adults with central obesity and low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level

Decreased adiponectin level in adults with central obesity and low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level

Authors: Pusparini Pusparini, Lie Tanu Merijanti, Alvina Lesmana, Meiyanti Meiyanti
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Abstract

Background Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with obesity and central obesity, which is in turn associated with the accumulation of visceral fat. Visceral fat secretes adiponectin which has a role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level and adiponectin level in adults with central obesity. Methods This study was a cross sectional study with 80 subjects with central obesity and 80 healthy subjects as controls. The age of the subjects ranged from 55 to 65 years. The data collection included anthropometry and blood biochemistry (lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, 25(OH)D, and adiponectin). The data were analyzed using independent t test with p <0.05. Results Mean waist circumference and 25(OH)D level in the central obesity group were 94.9 ± 7.8 cm and 14.3 ± 6.6 ng/mL, respectively, and in the control group 72.4 ± 5.0 cm and 19.2 ± 8.6 ng/mL respectively. There were significant differences in adiponectin level between the central obesity group and the control group at the 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/mL (p=0.001), but no significant differences between the two groups at the 25(OH)D level of ³20 ng/mL (p=0.538). Conclusion The central obesity subgroup with 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/mL have lower adiponectin levels compared with the control group. This study demonstrates the role of adiponectin as a link between insulin resistance and vitamin D status in adults.

Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency; central obesity; adiponectin; adult
Low body mass index increases risk of anemia in patients with HIV-AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

Low body mass index increases risk of anemia in patients with HIV-AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

Authors: Mirna Widiyanti, Reynold Ubra, Eva Fitriana
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Abstract

Background In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, cytopenias of all major blood cell lines were increasingly recognized in patients with HIV infection. Anemia commonly occurs during HIV infection and has been associated with increased progression to AIDS and decreased survival. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated risk factors in adults with HIV-AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A cross sectional study was conducted involving 90 adults with HIV-AIDS. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. In all patients, CD4+ lymphocyte counts were performed by means of a PIMA analyzer, while hemoglobin was determined using a Sysmex hematology analyzer. The WHO cutoff value of hemoglobin was adjusted to altitude to define anemia. Mild to moderate anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8-13 g/dL for men and 8-12 g/dL for women. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8 g/dL. Data was analyzed by using logistic regression test. Results There were 90 subjects with HIV-AIDS in this study. Anemia was found in 50 subjects (55.6%), consisting of 12.2% with mild anemia and 43.4% with moderate to severe anemia. Multiple logistic regression showed that an important risk factor for anemia was low body mass index (BMI) between <17-18.5 (OR=4.20; 95% CI=1.23-14.36). However, the CD4 <350 cells/mm3 was not a significant risk factor for anemia (OR=1.03; 95% CI=0.21-5.04). Conclusions Low BMI increases the risk of anemia in subjects with HIV receiving ART. Better screening for anemia and infectious diseases, and modified harm reduction strategy for injection drug users are primary needs in HIV patients.

Keywords: Anemia; body mass index; CD4+; HIV-AIDS
Glycemic control for prevention vascular complication in diabetic patient

Glycemic control for prevention vascular complication in diabetic patient

Authors: Pusparini Pusparini
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Abstract

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) show an increased risk of vascular complications such as cardiovascular disease and an increased mortality rate resulting in a decrease in life expectancy of between 5-15 years, depending on age at diagnosis.There are several methods to establish the diagnosis of T2D. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following: i. fasting plasma glucose (FPG126 mg/dL after no caloric intake for at least 8 hours), ii. two hour postprandial glucose (PPG 200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose load), iii. glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.5%, and iv. random plasma glucose 200 mg/dL in patients with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia. FPG and PPG reflect the random,glucose concentration, whereas HbA1c reflects the mean blood glucose concentration of the previous 2 to 3 months. FPG and PPG contribute to HbA1c, but the interrelationship of the three types of measurements varies between patients and is complex, while the risk of diabetic complications is still unclear.

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Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

Authors: Donna Adriani, Minarma Siagian, Dewi Irawati
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Abstract

Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12), 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12), 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12), and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12). After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4) showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05). In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; nitric oxide; endothelin-1; rats
Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

Authors: Johnkennedy Nnodim, Nwodo Emmanuel, Okorie Hope, Constance Nwadike, Edward Ukamaka, E. Onah Christian
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Abstract

Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri. Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy) between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis. Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

Keywords: Membrane potential; selenium; calcium; preeclampsia
Consumption of elicited soybean sprout flour increases calcium level in serum of ovariectomized rats

Consumption of elicited soybean sprout flour increases calcium level in serum of ovariectomized rats

Authors: Siti Aminah, Suparmo Suparmo, Sri Naruki, Hastari Wuryastuty
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Abstract

Background The decline in estrogens could lead to an imbalance of bone formation and absorption as well as bone mineralization. Phytoestrogens are known to have the potential to maintain bone health. Calcium and phosphorus are essential components for bone mineralization. This study aimed to investigate the effect of soybean sprout flour consumption on serum calcium and phosphorus levels in ovariectomized rats. Methods A randomized post-test-only control group design involving 25 female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2 months, which were divided into five groups: (i) normal controls on standard feed diet AIN-93 (C-N), (ii) ovariectomy controls on standard feed diet (OVX -N); (iii) ovariectomized rats on standard feed diet + ethinylestradiol (OVX -E), (iv) ovariectomized rats on standard feed diet + soybean flour (OVX -S); (v) ovariectomized rats on standard feed diet + soybean sprout flour (OVX -SS). The rats were treated for 6 weeks, then on the last day of treatment blood sampling was conducted. Analysis of calcium and phosphorus in serum was performed using the Arsenazo III photometric method. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova. Results Mean serum calcium level was highest in the OVX-SS group (12.59 mg/dL ± 1.32), while mean serum phosphorus level was highest in the C-N group (1.708 mg/dL ± 0.28). Soybean sprout flour consumption had a significant effect on serum calcium levels (p=0.019), yet it had no effect on body weight and serum phosphorus levels of the rats. Conclusion Consumption of soybean sprout flour could positively affect serum calcium levels in rats.

Keywords: calcium, phosphorus, serum, rat ovariectomy, soybean sprout
5α-Oleandrin reduce Bcl-2 protein and increase Bax protein expression on Hela cervical cancer cell

5α-Oleandrin reduce Bcl-2 protein and increase Bax protein expression on Hela cervical cancer cell

Authors: Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih, Sofia Mubarika, Ibnu G. Ganjar, Subagus Wahyuono, Tatsuo Takeya
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Abstract

BACKGROUND The leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. have been utilized traditionally to cure cancer. By using Bioassay guided extraction and isolation method, three compounds (NiO-1, NiO-2, NiO-3) were isolated from an active fraction of the CHCl3 extract of N. indicum leaves. NiO-2 identified as 5α- oleandrin is the best cytotoxic compound on HeLa cervical cancer cell in vitro among the other two. However mechanism of action of the compound hasn’t been evaluated yet. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of action at molecular level. METHODS The action mechanism of 5α-oleandrin on HeLa cervical cancer cells was analyzed by staining the cells with Hoechst 33342; the agarose gel electrophoresis was aimed to determine the DNA fragmentation and the western blotting was aimed to determine the Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression. RESULTS Incubation of HeLa cervical cancer cell with 5α-oleandrin at the concentration 3,47x10-4 mM (24 hours) followed by staining with Hoechst 33342, a broken up light blue color of nucleus was observed (compared with intensive color of untreated control). By gel electrophoresis (at the same concentration of the tested compound), a smear band at about 200 bp was observed. In addition, cells treated with 5α-oleandrin displayed a decreasing of the Bcl-2 protein expression and increasing of the Bax protein expression CONCLUSION 5α-oleandrin induced HeLa cervical cancer cells DNA fragmentation observed by the presence of a smear band at about 200 bp indicative the apoptotic occurrence. 5α-oleandrin induces apoptosis by reducing the Bcl-2 protein expression but the Bax protein expression increases.

Keywords: Nerium indicum; 5α-oleandrin; cytotoxicity; DNA; anticancer
Catechins decrease neurological severity score through apoptosis and neurotropic factor pathway in rat traumatic brain injury

Catechins decrease neurological severity score through apoptosis and neurotropic factor pathway in rat traumatic brain injury

Authors: Retty Ratnawati, Annisa Nurul Arofah, Anastasia Novitasari, Sartika Dewi Utami, Made Ayu Hariningsih, Masruroh Rahayu, Sri Budhi Rianawati, Hari Purno...
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Abstract

BACKGROUND Catechins inhibits apoptosis through anti oxidant and anti inflamation pathway. Catechins also increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). There was a few research that explained the role of catechins in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of catechins administration on neurologic severity score (NSS) through apoptosis and neurotropic pathway in traumatic brain injury rat model. METHODS A post test only controlled group design was performed using traumatic brain injury rat (Rattus novergicus) model through weight drop models. It was devided into negative control group, positive control group, TBI+catechins 513 mg/kgBW, TBI+catechins 926 mg/kgBW, TBI+catechins 1113 mg/kgBW. NSS was measured in the first hours, day three, and day seven. The expressions of NFkB, TNFa, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, caspase 8, BDNF, and the numbers of apoptosis cells were evaluated by imunohistochemystry method. One way Anova and Kruskal Wwallis were used to analyse the data. Results TNFa, caspase 8, number of apoptosis cells were significantly decreased on the seventh day administration compared to the third day administration (p<0.05). Catechins increased the expression of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF significantly (p<0.05). Yet, there were no significant differences between expression of caspase 3, NSS, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and BDNF toward third days administration of catechins compared with seven days administration (p>0.050). Conclusions Administration of catechins decreased NSS through inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, as well as induced the neurotrophic factors in rat brain injury. Catechins may serve as a potential intervention for TBI.

Keywords: Catechins; traumatic brain injury; apoptosis; inflammation; rats
Performance of osteoporosis self-assessment tool in detecting low bone mineral density in menopausal women

Performance of osteoporosis self-assessment tool in detecting low bone mineral density in menopausal women

Authors: Ignatio Rika Haryono, Nawanto Agung Prastowo
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Abstract

Background The osteoporosis self-assessment tool (OST) is a simple screening tool to assess risk of osteoporosis and to select high risk women for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. This study aimed to evaluate OST performance in detecting low bone mineral density (BMD) in menopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 60 menopausal women aged 50-65 years. The OST score was calculated from: [weight (kg) – age (yr)] x 0.2. Subjects were classified by OST score into low risk (OST ³2) and high risk (OST< 2) groups. BMD was determined by DXA at 3 bone locations (L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip). DXA T-scores were categorized into: normal BMD (T-score >-1) and low BMD (T-score £-1). Independent t-test was used to compare subject characteristics between OST groups. Diagnostic performance of OST was evaluated by measuring sensitivity, specificity, positive & negative predictive value (PPV, NPV), positive & negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR) and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Significance was set at p<0.05. Results Subject characteristics and BMD between groups were significantly different (p<0.05). Most subjects (44/73.3%) had high risk of low BMD (OST < 2). Low BMD (T score £-1) was found in 43 subjects (71.7%) at L1-L4, 41 subjects (68.3%) at femoral neck, and 37 subjects (61.7%) at total hip. Diagnostic performance of OST was significant at total hip BMD (sensitivity=0.946, AUC=0.777). Conclusion We conclude that use of the OST score in menopausal women is effective and has adequate sensitivity and specificity. The highest diagnostic performance of OST is on total hip BMD.

Keywords: Bone mass; menopausal women; simple screening tools
L-arginine improves uterine spiral arterial wall thickness in mouse models of preeclampsia

L-arginine improves uterine spiral arterial wall thickness in mouse models of preeclampsia

Authors: Soetrisno Soetrisno, Sri Sulistyowati, Anwar Sandi Wibowo
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Abstract

Background Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The imbalance of anti-angiogenic and angiogenic factors plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. L-arginine is expected to improve the process of spiral artery remodeling. This study aims to examine the use of L-arginine to repair endothelial damage by measuring the thickness of uterine spiral arteries in mouse (Mus musculus) models of preeclampsia. Methods The researchers carried out an experimental study using 30 sixteen-day old pregnant Swiss mice (in good health, weighing 20-25 grams), which were randomly divided into 3 groups (each consisting of 10 mice). The groups were as follows: 1) normal pregnancy K(-); 2) preeclampsia model K(+); and 3) preeclampsia model receiving L-arginine (P). The authors performed histopathological examination of the mouse placenta, which had been dissected, embedded in paraffin wax and subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The results were analyzed in SPSS v. 21 for Windows using Anova with Tukey. Results The mean thickness of spiral arteries in group K(-) was 53.95 + 26.96 mm, in K(+) 96.50 + 16.66 mm, and in P 62.79 + 8.04 mm. Statistically, there were significant differences between groups K(-) and K(+) (p=0.001) and between K(+) and P (p=0.000), but non-significant differences between K(-) and P (p=1.000). Conclusions The treatment with L-arginine proved to be effective in repairing endothelial damage by reducing intimal hyperplasia an

Keywords: L-Arginine; spiral artery thickness; preeclampsia; mouse
Hormonal contraception increases risk of breast tumor based on clinical breast examination among adult women

Hormonal contraception increases risk of breast tumor based on clinical breast examination among adult women

Authors: Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko, Aprildah Nur Sapardin
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Abstract

Background In Indonesia, cancer prevalence according to the Basic Health Research 2013 was 1.4 per 1000 inhabitants and the most common cancer in hospitalized patients in 2010 was breast cancer (28.7%). Hormonal contraception (HC) use increases the breast cancer risk, even though HC has been used by 210 million women in the world. We aimed to define the association of HC with breast tumors based on clinical breast examination (CBE). Methods A case-control design using secondary data from the baseline of the Cohort Study on the Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Disease (RFNCD) in 2011-2012 in 5 villages in Central Bogor District, Bogor City. Samples consisted of 152 cases and 152 controls. Cases comprised palpable tumors in one or both breasts CBE (+). Controls had no tumors in both breasts /CBE(-). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results Odds Ratio (OR) of CBE + was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.11-3.04; p=0.019) for HC user and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60; p=0.044) for blood total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL. OR of group CBE(+) was 1.01 (current smoking) and 0.49 (former smoking) compared with nonsmoking (p=0.082); OR was also 1.21 for subjects with one child and 1.77 for those without children, compared with those who had ³2 children (p=0.454). Conclusion Hormonal contraception use increases breast tumor risk 1.8-fold after controlling for total cholesterol, smoking status and parity. With the several limitations of this advanced analysis, investigations focused on types and duration of HC use are still necessary.

Keywords: Hormonal contraceptionl breast tumor; adult women

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