Medpulse International Journal of Physiology

Medpulse International Journal of Physiology

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  • Publisher: MedPulse Publishing Corporation
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/07

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  • Language of fulltext: english
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  • Year open access content began: 2017
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This journal has '82' articles

Analysis of long term effects on FEV1/FVC ratio in cotton mill workers

Analysis of long term effects on FEV1/FVC ratio in cotton mill workers

Authors: Vrushali R Nalawade, Ramchandra Nalawde
Year: 2017, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

Abstract Background: Over the last decade, India has achieved a significant quantitative increase in cotton production. Depending upon the exposure of cotton dust, the workers show various changes in lung parameters. It is important to study the respiratory functions in cotton mill workers time to time to detect any occupational hazards occurring. This study was conducted to analyze of long term effects on FEV1/FVC ratio in cotton mill workers. Material and Methods: A cotton mill situated at Kadegaon in Sangli district was selected for the present study. A detailed assessment was done and various parameters were recorded which includes department of work, history of duration of exposure to cotton dust particles. A pulmonary function test was recorded using computerized spirometer. Results: Spirometric results in our study showed non significant decrease in FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/ FVC Ratio. Discussion: The lung parameters were not changed significantly. This shows the reduced prevalence of byssinosis among the cotton textile mill workers exposed to cotton dust, due to proper precautions taken in mill machineries and workers.

Keywords: FEV1/FVC Ratio, Cotton Mill Workers, Spirometry.
Prevalence study of respiratory symptoms and disorders among cotton mill workers

Prevalence study of respiratory symptoms and disorders among cotton mill workers

Authors: Vrushali R Nalawade, Ramchandra Nalawde
Year: 2017, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

Abstract Background: Diseases of the respiratory system induced by occupational dusts are influenced by the type of dust and duration of exposure. Workers in these factories are very poor and illiterate and are not fully aware of the negative impact of cotton dust prevailing in the working environment on their health. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Kadegaon in Sangli district, Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods: This community based cross sectional study was conducted in a cotton mill situated at Kadegaon in Sangli district. A detailed assessment was done on 287 included workers and various parameters were recorded which includes personal details including department of work, smoking history and history of duration of exposure to cotton dust particles. Personal history includes symptoms. Results: Out of 287included workers in present study, 103 subjects complained of chronic cough of 3 months or more duration in a year, among which 96 complained of chronic phlegm, breathlessness was complained by 91 subjects, 84 subjects complained chest tightness. Whereas, 28 subjects had allergic symptoms such as fever, sneezing and itchy eyes. Discussion: We found reduced prevalence of byssinosis among the cotton textile mill workers exposed to cotton dust. This reduced prevalence is due to proper precautions taken in mill machineries and workers. This supports association between reduced chances of respiratory diseases and proper precautions taken in mill and by workers.

Keywords: Cotton mill workers, dust, respiratory symptoms, cough, breathlessness.
Nutritional status, BMI and anemia in 1st MBBS medical students: A cross sectional study

Nutritional status, BMI and anemia in 1st MBBS medical students: A cross sectional study

Authors: Sushma S Sushma S Jadhav, Umesh Lad, Meenakshi Pawar, Anuj Ingole, Sheetal Bhavsar, Snehalata Mali
Year: 2017, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

Background: Nutritional anaemia is more common and now it is global. Adolescent become more susceptible to nutritional anaemia. Anaemia causes detrimental effects on academic performance of students. Medical students are at higher risk of developing anemia due to busy schedule in colleges, burden of medical studies and clinical postings, extracurricular activities. Very few studies have been done to know the nutritional status, BMI and anaemia among medical students in this region of Maharashtra. So the present study is undertaken to evaluate the same. Objective: To the study nutritional status, BMI and haemoglobin level among 1st year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Physiology, Government Medical Latur, from September 2016-February 17. A total 140 healthy medical students of both sexes studying in 1st year of MBBS were included in the study. All students were enrolled after taking informed consent, and approval of institutional ethics committee. Hb% was calculated by Sahli’s standard method. Anthropometry parameters like height, weight were taken and BMI was obtained as per standard protocol. Correlation between BMI and haemoglobin was estimated. Grading of anaemia and BMI was done as per the WHO criteria. Result: In the present study 45% (30) girls out of 70 were found to have anaemia (Hb<12g %). In boys 20 % (14) were anaemic. The study showed among 70 girls, 35% (24) were underweight, 50% (35) were of normal weight, and 15% (11) were overweight. Among 70 boys, 20% (13) were underweight, 55% (39) were of normal weight, 25% (18) were overweight. A positive correlation of Hb% with BMI was noticed in boys and girls. Conclusion: Nutritional anaemia was found to be prevalent even in medical students. Girl students showed higher prevalence of anaemia and underweight as compared to boys. It can be prevented in this group by providing iron supplementation in diet. Preventive programs must be considered for this group.

Keywords: Nutritional anaemia, BMI, Medical Students, obesity.
Effect of air pollution on petrol pump workers:  A observational study

Effect of air pollution on petrol pump workers: A observational study

Authors: Pratima D Khatake, G Parvathi
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Lungs are the primary target organ of all the inhaled pollutants. Such residency is linked with the exacerbation of asthma, respiratory morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and increased risk of viral respiratory infections. Objective: To evaluate the effect of air pollution on lung function test (FVC and FEV1) in petrol pump workers. Material and Methods: The present comparative cross sectional study conducted at tertiary care Hospital. The study subjects comprised of thirty males who were working in different petrol pumps. There were thirty controls which comprised of healthy adult males. The present study was approved by the Institution Ethical Committee. The pulmonary-function tests were studied by using a computerized spirometer after taking informed consent. The parameters measured were forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1). Results: The mean FVC value in petrol pump workers and controls was 3.06 ± 0.43 litters and 3.38 ± 0.52 liters respectively with statistically significant difference. (p<0.05) The mean FEV1 value was 2.94 ± 0.54litres in control group and 2.55 ± 0.53 liters in petrol pump workers with statistically significant difference. (p<0.05). Conclusion: Hence, the study concludes that exposure to petrol fumes and automobile exhaust markedly decreases pulmonary function of petrol pump workers.

Keywords: Petrol Fumes, FEV1, FVC
Comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical students

Comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical students

Authors: B Syamala Devi, Kala Madhuri N
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Reaction time (RT) is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. Simple reaction time is usually defined as the time required for an observer to detect the presence of a stimulus. It is a physical skill closely related to human performance. Aims and Objectives: To study visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of Medical Students. Methodology: After approval from institutional ethical committee a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology of at the Medical College in the medical students after their written explained consent during the June 2016 to June 2017. There were totally 60 medical students; of the similar age group; both male and female were taken equally. The tests were done using Inquisit 4.0 computer software released in 2013 by Millisecond Software in Seattle, Washington. The statistical analysis done by un-paired t -test and calculated by SPSS version 19. Result: In our study we have found that VRT and ART were significantly different in males and females i.e. 225.52±10.21 and 252.32±15.32 (P<0.0001; t = 7.9731, df = 58), and 215.32±9.82 and 235.42±17.23 (P<0.0001; t = 6.0500, df = 58) respectively. The VRT and ART were significantly different in Sedentary and Regularly exercising Medical students i.e. 249.11±16.32 and 250.12±9.22 (P<0.0001, t=6.92, df=58) and 238.71±13.82 and 215.25±9.92 (P< 0.005, t=7.82,df=58) respectively. It is also clear that overall the ART was more than VRT. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our study that VRT and ART were significantly different in males and females, the VRT and ART were significantly different in Sedentary and Regularly exercising Medical students, overall the ART was more than VRT.

Keywords: ART (Auditory Reaction Time), VRT (Visual Reaction Time), Physical activity, Factors affecting ART and VRT.
A study of FEV1 in relation to body mass index among smokers

A study of FEV1 in relation to body mass index among smokers

Authors: L K Sudeer Kumar
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: FEV1 is the most specific and dependable measure of airway obstruction. Because of the reliability and simplicity of equipment needed to measure FEVI this parameter is used most frequently to measure bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Reduction in FEVI reflect the total effects of reduction in TLC, obstruction of airway, loss of lung recoil and relatively uncommon gross weakness of respiratory muscles. Methodology: First, case history is taken with special emphasis on personal habits. Then secondly the physical examination including the measurement of height and weight. All the tests are done at the same time of the day to avoid possible diurnal variation. Subject is allowed to sit comfortably on the stool. Instructions are given about the tests. A very enthusiastic demonstration by the operator is required. So that a maximum effort is made by the subject when carrying out the forced expiratory test. Subjects who has not previously examined on spirometry should have two or more practice attempts until it appears that maximum effort is being obtained. Results: In smokers, the smokers with normal weight the mean are 54.85 and the standard deviation is 26.42. In smokers with overweight the mean is 51.94 and the standard deviation is 22.47. When this values are tested using chi-square test, it is found that there is significant difference, according to the chi-square test the P value is less than 0.05 Conclusion: The effect of smoking on FEV1 is more affected in overweight group of subjects than the normal weight group of subjects.

Keywords: FEV1, Smoking, BMI.
FEV1/FVC among smokers and non smokers: A comparative study

FEV1/FVC among smokers and non smokers: A comparative study

Authors: L K Sudeer Kumar
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Respiratory Physiological changes in obesity are decreased overall compliance, increased airway resistance and shallow breathing pattern. These changes are due to increased intra abdominal pressure, decreased chest wall expansion, reduced small airway caliber and adaptation to the increased load. Methodology: The study was conducted at department of TB and chest diseases, medical college. Tests were carried out in the laboratory and these tests were done in chronic smokers who attend in the smoker's clinic at morning hours. Here pulmonary function test are done using spirometry. Results: In smokers, the smokers with normal weight the mean is 81.89 and the standard deviation is 23.10. In smokers with overweight the mean is 78.29 and the standard deviation is 21.61. When these values are chi-square test, it is found that there is significant difference, according to the chi-square test the P value is less than 0.05 Conclusion: The effect of smoking on FEV1/FVC is more affected in overweight group of subjects than the normal weight group of subjects.

Keywords: FEV1/FVC, Overweight, Spirometry.
Study of serum calcium levels in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women

Study of serum calcium levels in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women

Authors: Chetana K Patwa, Nitesh I Jindani, Syeda Afroz
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 2
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Abstract

Background: Menopause is a phase from where bone mineralisation becomes critics because of various physiological and hormonal changes. Oestrogen deficiency and age related processes alter the rate of calcium turnover in bone that aging woman faces. Osteoporosis especially in postmenopausal women is a well documented problem. In India lack of nutritional and health awareness makes its prevalence like tip of iceberg phenomenon. It is asymptomatic until any serious complication occur. However it is a gift of today’s medical science that complications like bone fragility, fractures and morbidity can be prevented by careful screening and early treatment. Objectives: To evaluate and compare serum Calcium levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. To find out any effect of postmenopausal hormonal changes on serum Calcium levels in women. Method: 30 premenopausal women of age group 20-30 years and 30 postmenopausal women of age group 50-60 years evaluated for serum Calcium level by Arsenazo method performed on semi-automated biochemistry analyser Statistical Analysis: Unpaired student’s ‘t’ test. Result: Mean serum calcium level in postmenopausal women (8.96±0.66l) found lower than that in premenopausal women (9.49±0.63) and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women should be monitored for serum Calcium levels for reducing risk of thyroid dysfunction.

Keywords: Premenopausal women, postmenopausal women, Serum Calcium
Effect of Pranayama and Aerobic exercise on stress levels of medical students

Effect of Pranayama and Aerobic exercise on stress levels of medical students

Authors: Usha Patil, Vilas Ruikar, Atish Pagar, Savita Kittad
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 3
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Abstract

Recently stress during medical education is increasingly reported. Unmanaged stress has a negative impact on quality of life and in medical students affect their academic performance and may develop stress related anxiety disorders and depression. Present study is to find out whether regular Pranayama or Aerbic exercise can relieve stress and improve their physical and emotional well being and improve their academic performance. Total 120, 1st year medical students participated in the study, 40 for Pranayama and 40 for Aerobics and 40 were controls. Stress level was measured by stress questionnaire before and after training. One group was doing Pranayama and other group was doing Aerobics every day in the morning for half an hour under expert guidance for 30 days. Statistical analysis was done. There was remarkable and significant decrease in stress levels. Pranayama and Aerobics act as stress relivers. These easily available tools should be part of stress management plan in medical curriculum

Keywords: Pranayama, aerobic exercise
A comparative study on parathyroid hormone among premenopausal and postmenopausal women

A comparative study on parathyroid hormone among premenopausal and postmenopausal women

Authors: Pratima D Khatake, Snehalata Mali
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 3
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Abstract

Background: Calcium is one of the main bone-forming minerals and an appropriate supply to bone is essential at all stages of life. Calcium plays important role in osteoporosis pathology. The two main regulators of calcium homeostasis are PTH and vitamin D. Objective: To compare parathyroid hormone levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Latur. 30 premenopausal women with age between 38 to 45 years and 30 postmenopausal women between 50 to 57 years age group were selected from general population for the study. The study subjects with medical, surgical or gynecological abnormalities were excluded. The present study was approved by the Institution Ethical Committee. The informed written consent was taken from subjects. Results: Postmenopausal women had significantly lower serum calcium (8.13 ± 0.43) as compared to premenopausal women (9.36 ± 0.50) Postmenopausal women have significantly higher levels of serum parathyroid hormone as compared to premenopausal women but within the normal range limits and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001) Conclusion: This study suggests that there was increase in serum PTH levels in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women.

Keywords: Parathyroid hormone, Postmenopausal Women.
Axial length of the eyeball in ametropia in comparison to emmetropia by A-Scan:  A cross sectional study

Axial length of the eyeball in ametropia in comparison to emmetropia by A-Scan: A cross sectional study

Authors: R Havilah Twinkle, G Parvathi
Year: 2017, Volume: 4, Number: 3
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Abstract

Background: Axial length is regarded as one of the primary determinants of refractive error. The correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than for any other component. Objective: To study the axial length of the eyeball in ametropia in comparison to emmetropia. Material and Methodology: The present cross sectional study was carried out from October 2012 to September 2013 at Ophthalmology outpatient department, Regional eye hospital, Vishakapatnam. A study group of 150 cases divided into three groups by simple random sampling as emmetropes, myopes and hypermetropes in the age group of 10-30 years were included in the study. After taking informed consent the patient was enrolled into the study. A scan biometry using Appascan 2000 was done in all cases to know axial length. Results: The majority of patients in all groups were from age group 16-20 years with no gender difference. The axial length in emmetropes, myopes and hypermetropes was 23.60 ± 0.70 mm, 25.98 ± 1.00 mm and 21.58 ± 0.76 mm respectively. The mean axial length in the three groups was analyzed using ANOVA test and was found to be statistically significant (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Axial length is greater in myopic eyes as compared to that of hypermetropic eyes. The axial length is directly proportional to the degree of refractive error in myopic eyes and inversely proportional in hypermetropic eyes.

Keywords: Axial lengh, Ametropia, Emmetropia
A study of cardiovascular parameters in males and females at rest

A study of cardiovascular parameters in males and females at rest

Authors: Surekha P Mulay, Prashant Dahire
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is considered a good indicator of autonomic control related to cardiovascular health, and has been studied in a range of situations in order to determine the variables that influence it. Aims and Objectives: To study Cardiovascular parameters in Males and Females at Rest. Methodology: The present study was carried out in 60 normal healthy males and 60 normal healthy females between the age group of 19 and 20 years. The normal subjects were selected among the students of nursing college of S.R.T.R. medical college, Ambajogai and T.B.G. College of polytechnic, Ambajogai, with no special reference to their physical training. Parameters which were compared in same sex (Such as females or males) for before and after the exercise, the paired ‘t’ test is applied. Results: Significantly more heart rate was in females than males. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are very highly significantly and highly significant respectively more in males than females. Cardiac work is significantly more in females than males. Conclusion : It can be concluded from our study that high resting heart rate, Cardiac work was found in Females while Systolic and diastolic blood pressures more in males than females respectively.

Keywords: Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Heart rate (HR), Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP).
Evaluation of the relationship between nitric oxide level and severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Evaluation of the relationship between nitric oxide level and severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Authors: Shreyas Samaga, Shrikant L Patil
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: According to WHO’s estimated number of cases, India has the largest number of malaria cases occurring outside of Africa. Karnataka has the highest incidence of malaria in south India and in 2015 nearly 100 thousand cases were reported in this state, with 22 deaths. Malaria is a significant and serious health problem in Karnataka state and particularly in Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore) district. Methods: Blood samples were collected from both controls and patients for a series of laboratory investigations using standard protocols for estimation of hematological profile, nitrite / nitrate levels. Results: Significant decrease in hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia were the two most important hematological abnormalities seen in our cases of acute malaria infection. The chances of anemia was related more to decrease in hemoglobin level, while, thrombocytopenia was associated with P. falciparum infection. Conclusion: All together, these results point out to the fact that nitric oxide is in fact a marker of clinical infections can be used as an indicator for the severity of the disease.

Keywords: Malaria, Nitric oxide, Plasmodium falciparum, hematological profile
Effect of isometric hand grip exercise with respect to cardiovascular parameters in males and females

Effect of isometric hand grip exercise with respect to cardiovascular parameters in males and females

Authors: Pramod P Mulay, Surekha P Mulay, Prashant Dahire
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: There have been many statements in the scientific literature, popular press and in the classroom about concerning the relationship exercise and health. Aims and Objectives: To study Cardiovascular parameters with respect to Hand Grip exercise in Males and Females Methodology: The present study was carried out in 60 normal healthy males and 60 normal healthy females between the age group of 19 and 20 years. The normal subjects were selected among the students of nursing college of S.R.T.R. medical college, Ambajogai and T.B.G. college of polytechnic, Ambajogai. unpaired ‘t’ test was used for statistical analysis. Result: Statistically very highly significant increase in heart rate after handgrip exercise in both males and females. statistically very highly significant increase in systolic blood pressure after handgrip exercise in males and females. Show diastolic blood pressure is increased but not significantly after handgrip exercise in both males and females. Statistically very highly significant increase in cardiac work after handgrip exercise in both males and females. Highly significant more heart rate in females than males, highly significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure in males as compared to females, females have highly significant more cardiac work after exercise. Conclusion: After hand grip exercise there was highly significant more heart rate in females than males, highly significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure in males as compared to females and females have highly significant more cardiac work after exercise.

Keywords: Hand Grip exercise, cardiac work, Sympathetic activity
A study of heart rate variability in sport person and non-sport person

A study of heart rate variability in sport person and non-sport person

Authors: Moosa Shadab Munawar, Moosa Shajiya Sarwar
Year: 2017, Volume: 3, Number: 2
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Abstract

Background: The heart is a specialized pump that functions by regular and continuous contractions for delivery of blood throughout the body. Aims and Objectives: To study Heart rate variability in Sport person and Non-sport person Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Physiology of a tertiary health care center. The heart rate variability in the two Groups i.e. Sport and Non Sport person was studied during the study period i.e. March 2015 to April 2015 in the two groups i.e. Sports i.e. those who aged 20-50. The statistical analysis done by paired t-test calculated by SPSS version 19 software. Result: The HR in the Non-Sport person persons were significantly higher at rest and peak of the anaerobic exercise i.e. 73.5 ± 9.12 and 62.7± 7.82 and 192.21±10.1 and 185.43 ± 5.9 respectively (p< 0.001, t = 3.4817, df = 28, P<0.03, t = 2.2449, df = 28 ), but at Anaerobic Threshold was higher in Sport person as compared to Non-Sport person i.e. 192.21±10.1 and 185.43 ± 5.9 respectively (P<0.03, t = 2.2449, df = 28). In the Aerobic exercise the HR was significantly higher in Non-sport person at rest, threshold and at Peak as compared to sport person i.e. 70.51 ± 10.12 and 60.4± 6.67 105.21± 8.79 and 87 ± 6.72 ; 142±11.2 and 112 ± 5.9 (p<0.003, t = 3.2306, df = 28, p<0.0001, t = 6.3742, df = 28, P<0.0001, t = 9.1784, df = 28 ) respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our study that except to anaerobic exercise at threshold the Heart rate was significantly higher in Non -sport person as compared to Sport person in both Aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

Keywords: Sport person, Non-sport person, Heart variability, anaerobic exercise, Aerobic exercise

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