The International Journal of Frontier Sciences

The International Journal of Frontier Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Science Associates
  • Country of publisher: pakistan
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Jul/13

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Health and Wellness
  • Publisher's keywords: Medical and Health Sciences, Public Health and Management, Bio-Medical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Dentistry, Veterinary Sciences, Nursing
  • Language of fulltext: english

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2017
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: Other

This journal has '42' articles

Preface to International Journal of Frontier Sciences

Preface to International Journal of Frontier Sciences

Authors: Muhammad Imran
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Abstract

undreds of thousands of research papers are published every year all over the world. Scientists give their best in the field of research. Every researcher has a valuable contribution to scientific knowledge and ultimate betterment of human being in different aspects of life. Every researcher is important for science and human being in terms of his/her contribution to research. Researchers put their brain, energy, time and resources they have. Researchers give their best to research and their contribution should be acknowledged. If researcher’s contribution is not delivered to the relevant individuals, it is useless for researcher as well as for the community. Every research needs proper platform for its recognition. Research is being recognized through conferences, seminars and publications. There are multiple platforms for this purpose. We, the team of The International Journal of Frontier Sciences have started an effort to give our contribution for recognition and dissemination of researchers’ effort to everyone. It is a platform for a quality research work, accessible to every scientist around the globe.

Keywords: Preface to International Journal of Frontier Sciences
High Seropositivity of HIV, Hepatitis and Syphilis in Prisoner Blood Donors than the General Population Volunteers from the Punjab, Pakistan –A Longitudinal 13 Years Study

High Seropositivity of HIV, Hepatitis and Syphilis in Prisoner Blood Donors than the General Population Volunteers from the Punjab, Pakistan –A Longitudinal 13 Years Study

Authors: Muhammad Imran Qadeer, Muhammad Aslamkhan, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Fazal Ellahi
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Abstract

Background: HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis are leading transfusion transmitted infections. Blood donors are screened against these infectious diseases before transfusion to patients. Methods: Data of general population and volunteer prisoner blood donors is retrieved from records of January 2007 to September 2009. Data is analysed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Blood donors were screened using ELISA method against HCV, HBV, and HIV while VDRL method is used for screening against Syphilis. Results: Prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and Syphilis in general population blood donors is 3.3%, 4.7%, 0.51% and 0.47% respectively. Prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and Syphilis in prisoner blood donation is 7.81%. 15.42%, 1.17%, and 7.63% respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis is high in prisoners as compared to general population.

Keywords: High Seropositivity of HIV, Hepatitis and Syphilis
Vascular Reactivity during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients at Punjab Institute of Cardiology & Shalamar Hospital Lahore, Pakistan

Vascular Reactivity during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients at Punjab Institute of Cardiology & Shalamar Hospital Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Usman Rafique, Qandeel Rubnawaz, Ammar Hameed Khan, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar
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Abstract

Background: The operative treatment of cardiac diseases remains associated with systemic inflammation and a suboptimal outcome in many patients. These inflammatory changes are manifested by systemic hypotension, myocardial failure, increased vascular permeability and consequent dysfunction of organs such as the lungs, gut and brain. In general terms, sympathetic innervations of the small arteries and arterioles allows vasoconstriction, thereby increasing resistance to blood flow, whereas innervations of the large arteries and veins decreases the volume in these vessels, resulting in the redistribution of blood volume. This study was conducted to determine the effect of vasodilator drugs on duration of vasodilatation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods: We evaluated prospectively the effect of vasodilator medications before CABG surgery on hemodynamic variables and use of vasoactive drugs. We studied 30 patients with good left ventricular function allocated randomly to continue vasodilator drugs before cardiac surgery. Arterial pressure, Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and use of vasoactive drugs were recorded during anaesthesia, perioperative and in the early postoperative period. Results: Patients who using vasodilator drugs before cardiac surgery had not significant relationship between vasodilator drugs and vessels reactivity (vasoconstriction & vasodilatation). However, these patients required more vasodilator drugs to control hypertension after CPB and in the early postoperative period. Conclusion: There was no difference in hypotension at the onset of CPB or in the use of vasodilator drugs before cardiac surgery. We conclude that vasodilator drugs before cardiac surgery did not have sufficient effect to be recommended routinely.

Keywords: Vascular Reactivity during Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Prevalence of Common Infectious Diseases in Paediatric Age Group Admitted in Children’s Hospital Lahore, Pakistan

Prevalence of Common Infectious Diseases in Paediatric Age Group Admitted in Children’s Hospital Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Rashid, Iqbal Bano, Asif Hanif
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Abstract

Background: Infectious diseases are common causes of presenting in emergency having severe signs and symptoms. Having significant mortality and morbidity are on the rise in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases in paediatric population. Methodology: We studied 200 consecutive patients from 1 month to 12 years of age presenting with infectious diseases. Their detailed history was then taken including symptoms at presentation and the type of infection was assessed with the help of history and laboratory investigations. Following are the common infectious diseases including pneumonia, meningitis, enteric fever, malaria, measles, tuberculosis, acute watery diarrhoea. Results: Frequency wise infectious diseases are pneumonia (63.5%), meningitis (20%), acute watery diarrhoea (8.5%), enteric fever (4%), malaria (2%), tuberculosis (2%), and no measles case found. Infectious diseases are more common in rural areas than urban areas and success after treatment is more (49.5) than death (2%) but a bad impact is that (48.5%) patient went without treatment. Conclusion: This data is taken in winter season that is why Pneumonia is most common infectious disease, second most common infectious disease is meningitis, and others are acute watery diarrhoea, enteric fever, malaria and tuberculosis in our patients. The awareness of risk factors amongst the public is low. Thus, there is an urgent need to create more and more awareness about the preventive aspects and healthier life style behaviour in our community.

Keywords: Infectious diseases, paediatric population
Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4°C for up to 3 days

Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4°C for up to 3 days

Authors: Muhammad Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Asif Naveed, Rehma Dar
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Abstract

Background: The complete blood count is one of the most common routine tests. This study aimed to evaluate possible effects of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4°C over three days. Methods: Venous blood samples of 15 healthy males were distributed into two sets of tubes with each set of three tubes containing 50 μL of solutions with zero, 5 g/L, 10 g/L taurine. The tubes were kept at room temperature or at 4°C. Complete blood counts were performed on three successive days. The mean percentage changes [Δ = (mean value – mean baseline value) / mean baseline value x 100] were calculated and compared. Results: Complete blood count parameters exhibited different patterns of behaviour which were affected by the storage temperature, time and taurine concentration. Taurine at room temperature significantly enhanced the stability of: the platelet count over three days (Δ3 at 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 6.18, and 2.53 x 109 cells/L, respectively); the red blood cell count over three days (Δ3 at 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 2.59, and 1.39 x 1012 cells/L, respectively); mean corpuscular haemoglobin over three days (Δ3 at 5 and 10 g/L taurine were,-0.62 and -0.52 fl respectively); and red cell distribution width over two days (Δ2 at 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 1.30% and -0.1%, respectively). No additional stabilizing effects of taurine were reported for the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and haemoglobin, while it negatively affected the white blood cell stability. Conclusion: Complete blood count parameters exhibited variable stability patterns in respect to temperature, time and taurine concentration.

Keywords: Blood preservation; Taurine/blood; Platelet count; Antioxidants; Cold temperature
Life Quality of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients after Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Therapy

Life Quality of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients after Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Therapy

Authors: Hamna Rao
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Abstract

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea is an emerging sleeping disorder affecting much population around the world due to obesity and other medical conditions. My literature review will explain the current status of OSA worldwide and what betterments are being made in this area of advancement to provide better health and life quality. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a medical condition in which patients suffer from repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. This occlusion can be partial causing hypopnea or complete causing apnoea, in nature, leading to fragmented sleeping pattern (1). Patients suffering from OSA experience frequent awakening during the night, excessive sleepiness over the day, fatigue, trouble concentrating, irritability and depression (2). OSA also leads to serious lifelong ailments like systemic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases like coronary artery disease, conduction and rhythm abnormalities, heart failure and diabetes mellitus (3). There are multiple non-invasive and invasive treatment options for OSA. Weight reduction, continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP), bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP), auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP), oxygen supplementation, phrenic nerve stimulation, behavioural modification and muscle training exercises are some of the non-invasive modalities (4). Invasive treatments like rhinoplasty, septoplasty, tonsillectomy, glossectomy, maxilla-mandibular advancement and tracheostomy are used in those patients that does not respond to noninvasive techniques (5). In turn, OSA highly affects the quality of life of the patients due to decreased level of energy and motivation during daily activities. They feel more exerted and drained than unaffected people at a given workload. Due to their sedentary life style and lack of regular exercise they are more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (6). Methods: The articles that have been used in this literature review were selected from ELSEVIER, NAJMS, PubMed and European Heart journal and Snore Australia. Following key words are used, obstructive sleep apnoea, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, polysomnography.

Keywords: Life Quality of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients after Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Therapy
CPEC and Healthcare Benefits

CPEC and Healthcare Benefits

Authors: Muzammil Irshad
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Abstract

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a bond of bilateral cooperation between China and Pakistan to enhance economic growth of both the countries. As far as Pakistan is concerned, CPEC is one of the supreme strategies to modernize Pakistani infrastructure and to empower Pakistani economic growth in terms of transportation, energy, and numerous industrial reforms. Economic growth is considered a determinant of population health. It has been noted, “Wealthier nations are healthier nations” as they spend more on preventive medicine and on healthcare delivery. Hence, economic gains from CPEC development can flow into health gains as well.

Keywords: CPEC and Healthcare Benefits
Frequency of Hepatotoxicity in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients taking Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy

Frequency of Hepatotoxicity in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients taking Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy

Authors: Farkhanda Noureen, Abdur Rehman, Asif Hanif
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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is a global pandemic which affects millions of people every year. The treatment of tuberculosis consists of simultaneous use of several drugs for a prolonged period of time, therefore anti-tuberculosis treatment induced toxicity is a real problem. It is the most common side effect leading to interruption of therapy. Wide variations have been found in the reported incidence of hepatotoxicity during short-course chemotherapy. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ATT induced hepatotoxicity in pulmonary TB patients. Methodology: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital Lahore from November 2015 to January 2016. Total 137 pulmonary TB patients were included in this study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data of patients was collected by Questionnaire. Blood samples were taken and LFTs were done. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Results: Data of 137 patients was taken in the study. Out of which 60 (43.8%) were male and 77 (56.2%) were female. The mean age was 40.59±16.57. 45 (32.8%) patients out of 137, develop hepatotoxicity while 92 (67.2%) shows normal patterns of liver function. 22 (16.1%) patients out of 137 showed elevation of serum bilirubin levels. Conclusion: ATT induced hepatotoxicity is a frequent complication in Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients. So, all patients put on ATT must be followed up for at least the initial month. The patients and the treating physicians must be well-educated about the adverse effects of the ATT, its early recognition and management.

Keywords: Anti-tuberculosis treatment, pulmonary tuberculosis, liver function tests, hepatotoxicity
Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Authors: Taslim Rubab, Asif Hanif, Abdur Rahman
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Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is an important risk factor for Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Diabetes and Tuberculosis often present together and complicate each other at many levels. There is inadequate data on the frequency of diabetes mellitus in TB patients in Pakistan. Implementation of bidirectional screening for both diseases in patients with tuberculosis will not only ensure early case detection but also better management of diabetes at the same time. The study was conducted to assess the frequency of diabetes in patients presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 137 sputum positive TB patients were selected by non-probability (purposive) sampling technique and data was collected using a questionnaire. All cases of tuberculosis, more than 18 years of age, were screened for diabetes. Diabetes was confirmed by determining fasting blood sugar level using cut-off value of 126mg/dl. Results: The frequency of diabetes among pulmonary T.B patients in this study is was found to be 34.3% of which 29.9% were known DM cases and 4.4% were newly diagnosed. Conclusion: This study concludes high frequency of Diabetes mellitus in pulmonary tuberculosis. Diabetes is a common co-morbidity in people with TB, screening TB patients with fasting blood sugar estimation will help in early detection of diabetes.

Keywords: iabetes mellitus, Pulmonary tuberculosis
Association of Hyperuricemia with Coronary Artery Disease in Gulab Devi Chest Hospital

Association of Hyperuricemia with Coronary Artery Disease in Gulab Devi Chest Hospital

Authors: Aqsa Rasheed, Majid Kaleem
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Abstract

Background: Coronary artery disease is the most common and life threatening cardiac emergency presenting to a hospital. Having significant mortality and morbidity are on the rise in Pakistan. The objective of the study is to examine the association of elevated level of serum uric acid with ischemic heart disease among adult population, to guide planning for primary and secondary prevention of this disease in community. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study studied 110 consecutive patients from 20-80 years of age presenting with IHD (Myocardial infarction, unstable angina). All the subjects who were approached to participate in the study, gave their consent. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. Results: Association of serum uric acid were lined up as gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, menopause, dyslipidemia, family history and obesity. In this study, out of 110 patients 35 (32%) were females and 74 (68%) were males. Minimum Age of patients in this study was 30 years and maximum age was 70 years This study revealed that chest pain was the most occurring symptom which was observed in 39 patients which are 35.45% of the total patients and the second most occurring symptom was Dyspnea which was observed in 32 patients which 29.09% of the total patients. The study reveals that the major risk factor observed in CAD patients is ‘HTN’ which was found in 81 patients which are 73.64% of the total patients. However, ‘Smoking’ and ‘DM’ are proximate in occurrence and were found in 59 (53.64%) and 56 (50.91%) patients respectively. The study revealed that hyperuricemia was more in males that was 34(22.67) than in females. Conclusion: This study concluded that there was no significant association between hyperuricemia with ischemic heart disease.

Keywords: Ischemic heart disease, Serum Uric acid
Association of Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy

Association of Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy

Authors: Dur e Shahwar, Lubna Zubair
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Abstract

Background: Ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of a fertilized ovum anywhere outside the uterine cavity. Around 95% of ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. Most of these are occurring in the ampulla region. Other sites include the interstitial or the corneal region of the myometrium, cervix, ovary, peritoneal cavity (abdominal pregnancy) and in caesarean section scars. The objective of this study was to see the association of different risk factors of ectopic pregnancy. Methodology: It was a case-control study. The data was collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department Jinnah Hospital, Lahore and the study was completed at Gulab Devi PGMI, Lahore. For the analysis of data, SPSS version 16.00 was used. Results: 180 pregnant females were taken in which 90 were cases and 90 were controls. 16 females were more than 35 years in age of which 16% females had ectopic pregnancy. There were 3 females had history of smoking in which 3% females had ectopic pregnancy. There were 82 females who had history of pelvic surgery in which 43% female had ectopic pregnancy. There were 17 females have had history of previous ectopic pregnancy of which 14% were having ectopic pregnancy. There were 6 females have had history of IUCD (Intra uterine contraceptive device) of which 6% females were having ectopic pregnancy. There were 23 females who had history of PID (Pelvic inflammatory disease) of which 26% females were having ectopic pregnancy. There were 2 females have had history of tubal disease and had ectopic pregnancy. There were 21 females who had history of ART (Assisted reproductive technique) in which 3% females were presented with ectopic pregnancy. There was 1 female who had history of endometriosis in which 2% females were presented with ectopic pregnancy. There were 16 females have had history of low socioeconomic status of which 9% females were presented with ectopic pregnancy. There was 1 female who had history of tuberculosis and having ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: In the present study age more than 35 years, smoking, previous ectopic pregnancy, insertion of IUCD, PID, assisted reproductive technique, tubal disease, history of pelvic surgery, endometriosis and tuberculosis had a great association with ectopic pregnancy.

Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy, risk factors
The Comparison between the Outcomes of Streptokinase and Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Acute Myocardial Infarction

The Comparison between the Outcomes of Streptokinase and Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Zarnab Tariq, Majid Kaleem
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Abstract

Background: To compare between the outcomes of streptokinase and primary PCI in acute myocardial infarction. The inappropriate treatment, misdiagnosis, contraindications of procedures can result in complications of procedures and increased mortality of patients. The present study aimed to compare between the outcomes of streptokinase and primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction patients to minimize the death rates in MI patients. Methodology: The descriptive study was conducted at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital. All the samples were collected from cardiac department. A Performa was designed for recording the risk factors, ST elevation, clinical findings and lab results of the patients. Results: In this cross-sectional study of 100 patients, the mean age was 51.02+ 10.956. Male gender was predominant. There were more chances (67.00%) of acute LVF in streptokinase and less chances (21.00%) in primary PCI. According to this study, there was more chances (67.00%) of cardiogenic shock in streptokinase and less chances (21.00%) in primary PCI. In this study there were equal chances of stroke in streptokinase and primary PCI. In this study there were more chances (28.00%) of bleeding from any site in streptokinase and less chances (0%) in primary PCI. According to results there were chances (24.00%) of renal failure in streptokinase and less chances (0%) in primary PCI. There were more chances (9.43%) of rescue PCI in streptokinase and less chances in primary PCI. In this study, there were more chances of arrhythmias (26.41%) in streptokinase patients and less chances in primary PCI. In this study, there were also more chances of death (1.92%) in streptokinase and less chance in primary PCI. So according to my study primary PCI was better than streptokinase with less complications. Conclusion: Primary PCI was better than streptokinase to cure the myocardial infarction and better to minimize the complications after procedure.

Keywords: Streptokinase, Primary PCI, Myocardial Infarction, Acute Coronary syndrome, NonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
Health Impacts on Pregnant Females during Disasters in Pakistan

Health Impacts on Pregnant Females during Disasters in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Rashid
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Abstract

Introduction: Pakistan is vulnerable to many hazards due to its geography and climate condition, like floods, earthquakes, droughts and landslides. Some manmade hazards also provoking us like, road traffic accidents, fire, structural collapse, radiological and chemical spills etc. Pakistan have faced many of these which affects us badly at every perspective of life for example health, communication, water and sanitation and infrastructure. This study focused on health problems experienced by pregnant females during any type of disasters. Females faced so many problems because of very sensitive issues like unavailability of health facilities, lack of food, and unavailability of clean water, accommodation and transportation. Methodology: This is the descriptive cross-sectional study. The objective of the study was to identify health problems faced by the pregnant females during disasters. Annual disaster report of National Disaster Management Authority Pakistan and Pakistan Red Crescent Society is employed to identify these problems. Discussion: Unexpected environmental events cause natural disasters which affect entire communities and are likely to endanger life and property. In addition to causing casualties and economic losses, exposure to natural disasters can precipitate transient and more enduring somatic and psychological symptoms that relate to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Conclusion: Pakistan is exposed to different hazards due to its geography and climate situation. Catastrophic incidents, both natural and manmade, bring about heavy loss of human lives and livelihoods, damage to property and infrastructure. Such episodes can also aggravate natural processes, such like sudden tectonic movements, which promote earthquakes and tsunamis, resulting in frequent cyclones, continuous dry conditions cause prolonged droughts, severe storms, unexpected heavy rains, excessive snowfalls, floods, landslides, and avalanches, etc. The country is also vulnerable to manmade disasters, for example industrial hazards, bomb blasts, building fires, armed conflicts and nuclear and radiological events.

Keywords: Disaster, Hazards, Vulnerability, Female Population, Diseases
Outsourcing of Clinical Laboratory Services in Pakistan

Outsourcing of Clinical Laboratory Services in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar
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Abstract

Primary and Secondary Healthcare Department of Punjab Government, Pakistan owns 25 district headquarter hospitals, 100 tehsil headquarter hospitals and a number of rural health centres and basic health units. Currently, the department started process of revamping in hospitals and other healthcare delivery centres. In first phase, revamping of infrastructure and services of 25 district headquarter and 15 tehsil headquarter hospitals was started. For better care to patients and service delivery, services of janitorial and security were outsourced to private service providers. Now, the department plans to improve diagnostic services in these hospitals. For this purpose, laboratory and radiology services were planned to outsource. Islamabad Diagnostic Centre and Northshore Medical Labs are the two service providers who are to provide clinical laboratory services in selected hospitals. Islamabad Diagnostic Centre (Private Limited) is a leading diagnostic centre in Islamabad (Federal capital of Islamic Republic of Pakistan) which is ISO 151589:2012. While, Northshore Medical Labs is an American laboratory located and registered in New York State Department of Health and accredited by College of American Pathologist. It is expected to enhance clinical laboratory services standard by outsourcing of these laboratory services. First such laboratory became functional in District Headquarter Hospital Chakwal last month. Although the contract between outsourced laboratory and department describes upraising of services and quality standard by following MSDS(1) and departmental proficiency testing.(2)

Keywords: Outsourcing of Clinical Laboratory Services in Pakistan
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Diabetic Patients About Diabetic Foot Disease

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Diabetic Patients About Diabetic Foot Disease

Authors: Qandeel Rabnawaz, Muhammad Usman Rafique, Usman Ali Rehman, Sami Ullah Bhatti
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Abstract

Background: Diabetic foot disease (DFD) is a major challenge for the healthcare system, with enormous economic consequences for people living with diabetes, their families and society and it affects both quality of life and quality of care in the diabetic patients. This study was conducted to know about the knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetic foot disease in diabetic patients. Methodology: The study of knowledge, attitude and practices about DFD was done at the different areas in Lahore and at Bhutta Clinical Lab, Multan. Duration of this study was about 6 months. Questionnaire was designed and filled. Sample size of this study was 380. Data was collected and analysed by using SPSS. Results: In this study, 67.9% diabetic patients had poor knowledge, 30% had satisfactory knowledge whereas only 2.1% patients had good knowledge. Regarding attitude towards the DFD, 98.7% patients had good attitude, 1.3% patients had satisfactory attitude and poor attitude had not showed by any patient. In practices score, 47.4% were doing satisfactory practices, 42.9% patients were doing good practices and 9.7% patients were doing poor practices regarding DFD. Conclusion: In this study, awareness of the diabetic foot disease in diabetic patients was poor that may cause increase in the frequency of the diabetic foot disease that may ultimately cause amputation of the lower limb and even cause death due to sepsis. But attitude towards the disease was good in majority of the diabetic patients and practices regarding disease were also satisfactory therefore by increasing the knowledge regarding disease and knowledge of the good practices, reduction of the severe cases of disease and prevention of the disease should be done.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic foot disease

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