Open Veterinary Journal

Open Veterinary Journal

Basic info

  • Publisher: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli
  • Country of publisher: libya
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/15

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Parasitology, Endocrinology, Pathology and Forensics, Veterinary Science
  • Publisher's keywords: Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Sciences, Open access Veterinary Journal
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '201' articles

Using light and melatonin in the management of New Zealand White rabbits

Using light and melatonin in the management of New Zealand White rabbits

Authors: T. M. Mousa-Balabel| Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33511, E...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

Lighting system is a stimulant for reproduction in some species (Horses) and an inhibitor for others (Sheep). This study started on September 1st and planned to study the effects of different lighting regimes and melatonin treatment on the receptivity and performance of 78 (60-does and 18-bucks) New Zealand White rabbits, which were reared in a private Rabbitary in Menuofia Governorate, Egypt. These rabbits were randomly assigned to six treatment groups of 10 does and three bucks for each (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours light (HL) and melatonintreated). Ejaculate traits, sexual activity of bucks, sexual receptivity and reproductive performance of does were recorded. Results revealed that exposure of rabbits to long photoperiods (14 and 16HL) or treatment with melatonin improved the quantity and quality of ejaculate traits and buck sexual activity. Moreover, does sexual receptivity, feed intake, litter size and weight at birth and weaning were increased by long photoperiods (14 and 16HL) or treatment with melatonin. On the other hand, gestation period and pre-weaning mortality rate were decreased. It can be concluded that application of long photoperiods is beneficial to rabbit producers and 14HL:10 hours dark is optimal for satisfying the biological requirements of the rabbits. Finally, the light schedules can be used for biostimulation instead of melatonin.

Keywords: Light schedules, Melatonin, New Zealand White rabbits, Sexual receptivity
Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

Authors: R.B. Kayastha| National Research Centre on Pig, ICAR, Rani, Guwahati-781 131, India, G. Zaman| College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural Unive...
( 34 downloads)
Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18%) followed by white (28.53%), fawn (15.29%), grey (13.53%), black (4.41%) and mixed (7.06%). The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%). Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%), black hooves (84.71%) and black horn (100%). Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm, respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non-significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

Keywords: Indigenous cattle, Characterization, Physical, Morphometric
Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo) at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo) at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

Authors: S.A. Khan| Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, BangladeshوEcoHealth Alliance, New York, USA, M.M. Hassan| Chittagong Vet...
( 35 downloads)
Abstract

A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

Keywords: null
Hematology and serum chemistry reference values of stray dogs in Bangladesh

Hematology and serum chemistry reference values of stray dogs in Bangladesh

Authors: S.A. Khan| Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, BangladeshوEcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust), New York, USA, J...
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

Hematology and serum chemistry values were obtained from 28 male and 22 female stray dogs in Chittagong Metropolitan area, Bangladesh. The goal of the study was to establish reference value for hematology and serum chemistry for these semi wild animals in relation to age, sex, reproductive stage and body condition. No significant differences were found for mean values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell, differential leukocyte count, total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, phosphorus and potassium among or between sexes, ages, reproductive states or body conditions. Significant differences were noted for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p<0.02) between sexes. Among different age groups significant differences were found for total red blood cell count (p<0.001). Different body conditions have significant differences in red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p<0.001). Pregnant and non-pregnant females differed significantly in their red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p<0.001).

Keywords: Hematology, Serum chemistry, Reference value, Stray dog, Bangladesh
Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

Authors: A.M. Kammon| Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya, R.S. Brar| Department of Ve...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar®), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

Keywords: chlorpyrifos, chronic toxicity, clinicopathology, vitamin C, broilers
Studies on the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana)

Studies on the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana)

Authors: M.M. Hassan| Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences Univer...
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

This study screened the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana). The extract was tested against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in a model of albino rats and showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity (P<0.01). Disc diffusion technique was used to test the in vitro antibacterial activities of the extract and exhibited poor antibacterial activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (mainly Bacillus sp). Ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander showed narrow zone of inhibition in the bacterial lawns of Shigella flexineri, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sonnei. Cytotoxicty was determined against brine shrimp nauplii and LC50 of the plant extract was determined as 627.21μg/ml. The wide range of LC50 value denotes the safety effect of the extract.

Keywords: Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity, Albino rats, Brine shrimp, Yellow oleander
Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Authors: V. Kumar| Wild Life, Monkey Sterilization Centre, Distt - Kangra, Himachal Pradesh-176059, India , A. Raj| Veterinary Hospital – Deol, Distt - Kangra,...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

The present study involved 50 adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) of age ranging between 4 to 15 years. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by using laparoscopic method. Anesthesia was achieved by using xylazine (2mg/kg) and ketamine (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. The gravid uterus was located close to the urinary bladder in early pregnancy and in abdominal cavity in the mid and late stage of pregnancy. The procedure was completed within 10 - 12 minutes. There were no complications after the surgery and recovery of animal was smooth and uneventful. The results of this study showed that laparoscopic method is also one of the methods of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques and it can be a precise and a reliable method of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques.

Keywords: Free range, Laparoscopy, Pregnancy diagnosis, Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)
Raw cow’s milk relatively inhibits quorum sensing activity of Cromobacterium violaceum in comparison to raw she-camel’s milk

Raw cow’s milk relatively inhibits quorum sensing activity of Cromobacterium violaceum in comparison to raw she-camel’s milk

Authors: S.K. Abolghait| Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt, Department of Fo...
( 72 downloads)
Abstract

Milk from different animal species has variable levels of antimicrobial factors against some of spoilage bacteria. For example, they are significantly present in higher concentration in she-camel’s milk than in cattle or buffalo and they are more heat-resistant than their counterparts in cattle and buffalo. Spoilage bacteria are known to communicate with each other by release of signaling molecules, a phenomenon described as quorum sensing (QS). Some food matrices inhibit these signaling compounds. In this study we screened QS inhibitory activities in raw milk of cattle and camel. Ten samples each of fresh raw cow’s milk and she-camel’s milk from apparently healthy animals were screened using the bacterial model Cromobacterium violaceum. The tested cow’s raw milk samples were able to inhibit the production of QS signalling molecules acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by C. violaceum. However, she-camel’s milk samples were less effective in inhibiting such AHLs. Thus, one of the factors which influence the inhibitory activity could be derived from variation in milk chemical composition, especially in the percentage of fat which is significantly higher in tested cow’s milk samples (2.22±0.12) than in tested she-camel’s milk samples (1.44±0.35). Natural inhibition of QS signaling by cow’s milk may offer a unique means to control foodborne pathogens and reduce microbial spoilage.

Keywords: Quorum, Sensing, Inhibition, Cromobacterium violaceum, Milk
Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

Authors: L.W. Tee| Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Terengganu, Malaysia, M. Najiah| Faculty of Agrotechnology...
( 29 downloads)
Abstract

Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Heavy metal, Bullfrog, Bacteria
A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog

A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog

Authors: M. Yuki| Yuki Animal Hospital, 2-99 Kiba-cho, Minato-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 455-0021, Japan
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe nonregenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog was initially treated using prednisolone and cyclosporine. However, this treatment regimen did not prove effective. Nevertheless, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the administration of a combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil. Such a combination therapy may prove effective against non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia.

Keywords: Dog, Human immune globulin, Mycophenolate mofetil, Non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia
Ovine rotaviruses

Ovine rotaviruses

Authors: S. Gazal| Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, R.S.Pura, SKUAST-Jammu-181102, Indi...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

Rotavirus has been recognized as a predominant cause of acute diarrhea in young animals and humans. Rotavirus has segmented genome composed of 11 segments of double stranded RNA. The virus has a triple layered protein shell consisting of a core, an inner capsid and an outer capsid. The inner capsid protein is responsible for group specificity and based on it rotaviruses are classified into seven groups. Ovine rotavirus strains have only been identified into two serogroups (A and B). The two outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) are responsible for G and P typing of rotavirus, respectively. Although rotavirus has been frequently reported in many animal species, data regarding ovine rotavirus strains is very scanty and limited. Only a few ovine rotaviruses have been isolated and characterized so far. Recently, the G and P types circulating in ovines have been identified. The ovine rotavirus strain NT isolated from a diarrheic lamb in China is being considered as a promising vaccine candidate for human infants.

Keywords: Ovine, Rotavirus, Electropherotypes, G and P types, Vaccine
Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle

Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle

Authors: A. Malik| Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Kalimantan University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, Department of Veterinary Clinic...
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h (n=30), 53-55 h (n=30) and 58-60 h (n=40) after CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus synchronization was carried out using a CIDR containing 1.38 mg progesterone. All cows were given 2 mg estradiol benzoate, intramuscularly on the day of CIDR insertion (D 0). The CIDR was removed after 8 days and 125 μg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was injected intramuscularly. One day after CIDR removal all cows were given 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (D 9). Cows were observed visually for estrus after removal of CIDR. Between 30 and 32 days after timed AI, pregnancy was determined using transrectal ultrasonography. The first estrus observation which is approximately 32 h after CIDR removal showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three groups. The onset response of estrus after 32 h removal of CIDR was less than 10% in all three groups 6.6% (G1), 6.8% (G2) and 7.3% (G3). Furthermore, percentages of estrus response (D 10) following CIDR removal were 76.6%, 75.0% and 77.5%. The difference between on D 9 and D 10 estrus response were statistically significant (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 23.3% (G1), 26.6% (G2) and 37.5% (G3), which were not significant (P>0.05).

Keywords: Cows, Estrus synchronization, CIDR, Timed artificial insemination (TAI), Pregnancy rate
No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Authors: V. Kumar| Veterinary Officer,Dhauladhar Nature Park- Gopalpur, Palampur,Distt - Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.176059, A. Raj| Veterinary Officer,Vet...
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

Keywords: No-scalpel vasectomy, Electrocauterization, Free range, Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)
A three years retrospective study on the nature and cause of ocular dermoids in cross-bred calves

A three years retrospective study on the nature and cause of ocular dermoids in cross-bred calves

Authors: M.M. Alam| Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, M.M. Rahman| Upazila Veterinary Surgeon,...
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

Nature and cause of ocular dermoids were investigated by field studies, pedigree analysis, clinical examination and light microscopy. It was determined that ocular dermoids in cross-bred calves are genetically-transmitted defects. Calves typically were affected unilaterally or bilaterally with multiple, connected ocular growths that clinically and histologically mimicked normal haired skin. Sites most commonly involved included ventro-lateral limbus, third eyelid, medial canthus, eyelid and conjunctiva. Centro-corneal and anterior segmental dermoids were also observed. It is postulated from this study that bilateral ocular dermoids are genetically-transmitted defects in Hereford cattle. Characteristics of both autosomal recessive and polygenic inheritance were observed. However, mode of inheritance and role of environment in the pathogenesis of these peculiar and important developmental defects remain undefined. Extensive breeding trials utilizing superovulation, embryo transfer, and pre-terminal caesarean section as well as further field studies might be mandatory to confirm sex incidence, significance of associated somatic defects, role of environment in phenotypic expression, and mode of transmission of ocular dermoids in cross-bred calves.

Keywords: Cross-bred calves, Dermoid cysts, Incidence, Ocular dermoids, Surgical intervention
Levels of heavy metals in liver and kidney of dogs from urban environment

Levels of heavy metals in liver and kidney of dogs from urban environment

Authors: F.P. Serpe| University of Naples Federico II, School of Veterinary Medicine , Naples, Italy, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, De...
( 30 downloads)
Abstract

Lead, cadmium and mercury were detected in liver and kidney tissue of dogs from an urban habitat. Samples were digested in a microwave system and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results of the current study showed that at least one of the three heavy metals was detected in tissues of all examined dogs. These findings make us suppose that humans are exposed to the same heavy metals similar to those of dogs that are exposed since they share the same environment. Mercury concentrations detected in kidney of household dogs were higher than stray dogs, therefore the involvement of pet food in exposure to mercury can be supposed.

Keywords: Cadmium, Dog, Environment, Lead, Mercury

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