Arctic and North

Arctic and North

Basic info

  • Publisher: Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Jul/19

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Social Sciences, Economics, Political Science
  • Publisher's keywords: Political Science, Cultural Studies, Economics, Sociology
  • Language of fulltext: english, russian
  • Time from submission to publication: 16 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-SA
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in:
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '53' articles

Maritime Shipping on the Northern Sea Route: Need for Greater Emphasis on Mutual Cooperation and a Non-Negotiable Safety Culture. Part I

Maritime Shipping on the Northern Sea Route: Need for Greater Emphasis on Mutual Cooperation and a Non-Negotiable Safety Culture. Part I

Authors: Jawahar BHAGWAT
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The opening of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) due to the melting of the Arctic sea ice ushers in many opportunities. The International Maritime Organization has introduced several regulations for shipping and the training of seafarers. The Northern Sea Route has several challenges concerning the infrastructure and the harsh weather conditions. The recent incident on board the Viking Sky cruise liner was a reminder of such challenges. The Norwegian authorities responded admirably, and the Search and Rescue operation was conducted with the necessary coordinated effort in the shortest possible time. Other incidents along the NSR and increasing ship casualties in the Arctic region have been analyzed concerning the adequacy of existing regulations. The author’s opinion is that these incidents bring out a need to examine the adequacy of the Polar code, infrastructure along the NSR, and the current state of Search and Rescue (SAR). From a practical point of view, the Norwegian experience would be of interest to all Arctic states and the IMO. The evolution of the Polar Code and the challenges in implementation are discussed. The article puts forth several recommendations for improving cooperation and safety to make the NSR a viable alternative route. This article can be used for educational purposes at universities. It is relevant for civil servants, shipping authorities, search and rescue authorities, and researchers involved in developing the Arctic sea routes and specifically the Northern Sea Route.

Keywords: Arctic, Arctic routes, Arctic sea ice cover, The Northern sea route (NSR), Russia, Search and Rescue (SAR), vessel traffic patterns, cooperation
Arctic Tourism in the Barents Sea Region: Current Situation and Boundaries of the Possible

Arctic Tourism in the Barents Sea Region: Current Situation and Boundaries of the Possible

Authors: Dmitriy V. SEVASTYANOV
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article discusses current trends in the development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF) and the peculiarities in the Arctic tourism organization. Over the past ten years, the geography of recreational nature management and international tourism in the Russian Arctic has significantly expanded. Among all the northern countries, Russia has the longest coastline in the Arctic and the largest sector of the adjacent shelf and waters of the seas of the Arctic Ocean (AO). So, its current economic and political interests in the polar zone are apparent. However, compared with neighboring Arctic countries, in the Russian Federation, for several reasons, the potential of Arctic tourism is far from being fully utilized. Natural and anthropogenic factors regulate its further development. On the example of actively developing cruise Arctic tourism in the Barents Sea region, the existing problems, and prospects of the possible development of tourism in the Arctic in current conditions are discussed. Based on the analysis of sources available on the modern development of Arctic tourism in general and in the Barents Sea basin, in particular, the author made conclusions about the factors limiting the growth of Arctic tourism in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Arctic, tourism, Barents Sea region, recreational nature management, icebreaking fleet, regulatory factors, sustainable development
Small Business in the Arctic: Background for Changing the Management Paradigm

Small Business in the Arctic: Background for Changing the Management Paradigm

Authors: Andrey G. TUTYGIN, Lyudmila A. CHIZHOVA, Anna I. REGETA
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis and justification of socio-economic background that initiates the need to change the paradigm of management for small and medium-sized businesses in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The key points of this analysis, in addition to the generally accepted estimates of demographic trends, were those indicators of the dynamics and structure of the standard of living which are the link between the population as a consumer of goods and services, and small businesses that create these goods and services. In the almost complete absence of a single content that allows full monitoring of small and medium-sized businesses, the state makes attempts to make adequate management decisions based on the project management methods. It is especially clearly reflected in the adopted and implemented system of national and federal projects and programs. At the same time, even in the current trends in the formation of information and analytical support for these projects and programs that directly or indirectly relate to small businesses, economic aspects often prevail over social ones, which is directly reflected in the formation of the management paradigm. At the same time, a systematic approach and appropriate tools, lead the authors to the conclusion that in the coordinate system of socio-economic development of the Arctic territories, the economic drivers are large corporate structures, while small businesses are assigned the role of a localized “social buffer”. It is one of the main backgrounds for changing the paradigm for small and medium-sized business management in the Arctic areas of Russia. The current economic situation caused by the COVID-2019 pandemic fully confirms our assumptions.

Keywords: small and medium-sized businesses, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, socio-economic development of territories, system approach, management paradigm
Integrated Security Issues in the Basic Principles of Russian Federation State Policy in the Arctic to 2035: Experience and Prospects for Implementation

Integrated Security Issues in the Basic Principles of Russian Federation State Policy in the Arctic to 2035: Experience and Prospects for Implementation

Authors: Sergey N. GRINYAEV, Valery P. ZHURAVEL
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

March 5, 2020, President of Russia V.V. Putin approved the Basic Principles of Russian Federation State Policy in the Arctic to 2035. It is a strategic planning document aimed at ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation and designed to protect Russia’s interests in the Arctic. It defines goals, directions, tasks, as well as mechanisms for implementing Russian policy in the Arctic for the next 15 years. The authors analyzed the implementation results of the Basic Principles of Russia’s State Policy in the Arctic until 2020 and further perspectives. The article provides a general outline of the Basic Principles of Russian Federation State Policy in the Arctic to 2035. The authors focus on the analysis of the leading national security challenges in the Arctic and enhancing integrated security of the fuel and energy complex, as well as the main directions of the implementation of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic. They are the protection of the population and territories of the Arctic zone from natural and human-made emergencies, enhancing national security in the Arctic zone, ensuring the military security of the Russian Federation, and protection of the state border of the Russian Federation. It is emphasized that the comprehensive implementation of the Basic Principles will contribute to improving the quality of life of people in the Arctic zone, socio-economic development of the country, and increasing its defense capability in the Arctic.

Keywords: Russia, Arctic, Basic Principles of Russian Federation State Policy in the Arctic to 2035, threats
Organizational Mechanisms for Implementing Russia's Arctic Strategy  in the 21st Century

Organizational Mechanisms for Implementing Russia's Arctic Strategy in the 21st Century

Authors: Konstantin S. ZAIKOV, Nikolay A. KONDRATOV, Svetlana A. LIPINA, Lina K. BOCHAROVA
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The Arctic in the 21st century remains a popular topic in the natural-scientific, economic, socio-humanitarian, and political spheres. The relevance of studying the Arctic is determined by the fact that in recent decades, deep and irreversible transformations have taken place in this region, and a full understanding of the causes and consequences of which for the economy and environmental management has not yet developed. As a result of climate change and globalization, there is a growing interest in the Arctic macro-region on the part of many foreign countries that developed strategies and programs for the development of national Arctic zones at the beginning of the XXI century. Against the background of global competition for resources and transport communications, it seems relevant to analyze the features of the development of Russia's state policy for managing the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation in the XXI century. The article analyzes the mechanisms of implementation of Russian state policy in the Arctic based on the strategic planning system and reveals the bottlenecks in the system of state management of the Arctic region. It is concluded that the core of Russia's policy in the Arctic is innovative modernization that can ensure sustainable socio-economic development, infrastructure development, rational use of natural resources, protection of local ecosystems and development of indigenous communities.

Keywords: Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, state policy, strategic planning, program-target approach, support zones of development, innovations
Relevant Aspects of International Legal Regulation of the Arctic Shipping

Relevant Aspects of International Legal Regulation of the Arctic Shipping

Authors: Svetlana V. POPKOVA, Lev S. ZARUBIN
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The critical aspects of the international legal regulation of shipping in the Arctic discussed on the international Arctic agenda are analyzed. The authors examine the specifics of the Northern Sea Route legal status from the perspective of the leading role of the Arctic coastal states and the possibilities for countries to specify at the national and regional levels the universal norms of international maritime law at the national and regional levels. The authors devoted much attention to the study of the UNCLOS 1982, Art. 234, which gives coastal states the right to adopt national laws and regulations to control pollution of the marine environment in ice-covered areas within exclusive economic zones. The article is one of the leading international legal grounds for the Russia's establishment of control over the NSR shipping. The Polar Code, entered into force in 2017, is examined separately. The article also presents expert opinions on navigation forecasts in the Arctic region.

Keywords: Arctic, climate change, shipping in the Arctic, Northern Sea Route, security, Polar Code
Svalbard in the Context of Arctic Security

Svalbard in the Context of Arctic Security

Authors: Andrey A. TODOROV
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article studies Svalbard’s role in the Arctic security agenda, the history of the implementation of the Paris Treaty 1920 with the emphasis on its security provisions, as well as the risks of engaging Svalbard in a military conflict in the region. Despite the demilitarized status of Svalbard, the evaluation of its role in the hard security situation in the Arctic is hampered by several factors. First, Norway sticks to a narrow interpretation of the Treaty 1920 provision that bans any use of the archipelago for warlike purposes. Norway does not consider such actions as the entry of military ships in Svalbard’s ports, overfly of military aircraft, and some other, contradicting with the Russian position, a violation of the Treaty. Second, the development of technologies, particularly of “dual” use, has posed the question of whether the application of some objects situated on Svalbard by the militaries — primarily the stations of space monitoring — are legitimate. Third, as the political uncertainty in the Arctic rises, Svalbard has been more often involved in the worst-case scenarios for the region — as a place vitally important for Russia and simultaneously representing potential vulnerability for NATO. At the same time, the author argues that the threat of a military conflict over Svalbard is minimal. The international Svalbard agenda is dominated by economic issues, whereas the stakeholders stay aware of the significant risks in case of a military conflict on Svalbard.

Keywords: Svalbard, Arctic, Russia, Norway, Arctic security, Svalbard Treaty, NATO, armed forces
Oral Stories about the Mezen Churches as a Subject of Interdisciplinary Research

Oral Stories about the Mezen Churches as a Subject of Interdisciplinary Research

Authors: Natalia V. DRANNIKOVA
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article analyzes oral narratives about the destruction of Orthodox religious buildings. Sources of the research are tests recorded during the folklore-anthropological expeditions of the Northern (Arctic) Federal University in the Mezen district of the Arkhangelsk Oblast (2009–2018). By the beginning of the 1930s, in Russia, the concept of “militant atheism” took shape and was approved, based on the idea of the counter-revolutionary meaning of religion and the anti-Soviet activities of believers. The object of our research is interdisciplinary. It is the subject of the study for oral history, folklore, social and cultural anthropology, and sociology. The sacrilege narratives are considered not so much as folklore or historical source, but as “a component of a local text ... whose function is not to “reflect”, but to “create” urban history, mythology, set the parameters for local identity.” A metanarrative is represented by the memories of the Mezen residents about the destruction of churches and the persecution of people for religious beliefs. It includes stories with the motives of dropping bells, punishment for the destruction of a church; desecration of cemeteries, the destruction of icons, the salvation of church property by the vil-lagers, the conversion of churches to schools, granaries, clubs or stables, and repression against priests and parishioners. The research allows tracing the dynamics of mass representations. There was a gap in the cultural memory of the Mezen residents. The Mezen religious stories testify that, in the cultural memory of the Mezen, they were supplanted to the periphery and replaced by the Soviet period values.

Keywords: religious stories, destruction, churches, punishment, sacrilege, interdisciplinary research, cultural memory
Revisiting the Quality of Area Planning Schemes in Terms of the Educational  Institutions Network Development at the Municipal Level in the Extreme  North Regions

Revisiting the Quality of Area Planning Schemes in Terms of the Educational Institutions Network Development at the Municipal Level in the Extreme North Regions

Authors: Arseniy L. SINITSA
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

A lot has been said about the low quality of territory development programs at the regional and municipal levels in Russian literature. However, rare examples are given to confirm this thesis. In the case of such closely related issues as demographic and the education system development at the municipal level, we consider the territorial planning schemes and show these issues are not given sufficient attention. In terms of demography, the main disadvantages are an insufficiently detailed analysis of the age distribution of the population and its dynamics, analysis of a very short period (1–4 years), underestimation of existing trends (e.g., a wave-like change in the population), and an extremely weak demographic forecast. Concerning the education system, the main disadvantages are a short review horizon (1–3 years), insufficient analysis of trends and justification of the proposed measures, the use of planned rather than real indicators, which leads to an underestimation of demographic trends, insufficient analysis of the accessibility of education institutions. A more detailed analysis of indicators over a greater number of years should be carried out to improve the quality of the schemes. When developing them, it is necessary to involve a specialist in demographic forecasting. Finally, it is required to create a model scheme that can be guided by developing schemes at the municipal level.

Keywords: Extreme North, educational system, territorial planning scheme, municipal administration, development, forecasting
Wrangel Island as Actant in the Historical Geography of the Russian Arctic through a Mi’kmaw Lens

Wrangel Island as Actant in the Historical Geography of the Russian Arctic through a Mi’kmaw Lens

Authors: Maura HANRAHAN
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

Wrangel Island is the largest island in the Russian Eastern Arctic and is now a protected place with international recognition. One of only five UNESCO world heritage sites in the Arctic, Wrangel Island is uniquely varied in its flora and fauna for an Arctic island. In this reflection piece, I use an Indigenous Mi’Kmaw cosmological approach to envision the much-storied Wrangel Island as a being and an actant in its long history, especially regarding human beings and anthropocenic activity. My approach asserts that, like plants, rocks, mountains, water, and landscapes, Wrangel Island has a unique and remarkable identity, personality, and spirit. For centuries, Wrangel Island has rebuffed human presence and it has been little affected by human activity. Today only scientists visit; no human collectivity has ever gained more than a slippery grip on the island. The tragedy is that, despite the island’s inclinations, the warming of the Russian Arctic may change this.

Keywords: Wrangel Island, ice, Arctic, Anthropocene, Mi’Kmaq
The New Book “Nature and Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic under the  Influence of Climate Change and Industrial Development: the Murmansk Oblast”

The New Book “Nature and Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic under the Influence of Climate Change and Industrial Development: the Murmansk Oblast”

Authors: Zakhar I. SLUKOVSKII
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

In 2020, a book, edited by E.A. Borovichov and N.V. Vronsky, “Nature and the indigenous population of the Arctic under the influence of climate change and industrial development: the Murmansk Oblast” was published by the Graphite Publishing House. The book provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of modern climate dynamics and human impact on biota, the environment and nature management in the Murmansk Oblast, one of the most industrially developed regions of the Russian Arctic, with particular attention to changes in the life of the indigenous people of the area — the Sami. The approaches to the development of a regional climate change adaptation strategy based on scenarios of the development of the Murmansk Oblast and considering the traditional knowledge of the indigenous population, as well as the socio-cultural development strategy of Lovozero, the compact residence area for the Kola Sami, are presented.

Keywords: consequences of climate change, Murmansk Oblast, Arctic, zones of intensive nature management, Sami
Overview of Arctic Policies and Strategies

Overview of Arctic Policies and Strategies

Authors: Lassi HEININEN
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The scientific report Arctic Policies and Strategies — Analysis, Synthesis and Trends delivers a holistic analysis of the policies, strategies, and declarations of relevant Arctic stakeholders, and new / emerging trends of Arctic governance and geopolitics at the 2020s. The analysis, using quantitative and qualitative methods, is based on a coding of the text of 56 policy documents (in 1996–2019). It considers how different Arctic actors address issues around the following indicators: human dimension, governance, international cooperation, environmental protection, pollution, climate change, security, safety, economy, tourism, infrastructure, and science & education. The study shows that the most-coded quotes of Arctic States’ policy documents relate to Governance, Economy, International Cooperation, Human Dimension, and Environmental Protection included Pollution and Climate Change. Those of Indigenous Peoples Organizations explicitly address issues surrounding Indigenous rights, Governance and ‘Traditional knowledge.’ The most-quoted indicators of Observer states are Science & Education, International Cooperation and Economy. The overall trends of Arctic governance and geopolitics are: i) Ambivalence of Arctic development, incl. ‘political inability,’ whenever a balance is sought between environmental protection and economy; ii) The domination of states within the Arctic territory due to geopolitical stability and sovereignty vis-à-vis globalization; iii) Focus on science for problem-solving due to climate change; iv) Close interrelationship between the Arctic and Space (digital security, meteorology) due to globalization and rapidly advancing climate change in the Arctic.

Keywords: policy & strategy, Arctic, state, indigenous people’s organization, analysis, trend
Competence centers for Arctic studies: thesis-based analysis

Competence centers for Arctic studies: thesis-based analysis

Authors: Valery A. GURTOV, Andrey V. STASEVICH
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article deals with theses thematic grouping, both following the Russian Arctic zone’s areas of socio-economic activity and organizations where they were prepared. Thesis selection on Arctic topics was carried out using morphemes (titles and keywords) of theses defended in 1990–2018. 1.436 of theses were selected, incl. 1.201 for the degree of Candidate of Sciences and 235 — for the degree of Doctor of Sciences amounting to 1% of the total number of analyzed theses. More than 50% of theses related to the Arctic topics were dealing with three principal areas of Arctic socio-economic activity: “water and biological resources”, “ecology, climate and people”, and “geology and minerals”. Researchers’ organizations were in 51 different territories of the Russian Federation. Among 503 organizations involved in Arctic research on all topics, the leaders are Lomonosov Moscow State University (72 theses), Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (62 theses), Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (43 theses). The analysis allows us to create an objective list of all organizations — Competence centers for Arctic studies — involved in areas related to Arctic socio-economic activity.

Keywords: Russian Arctic zone, areas of social and economic activity, region, R&D, thesis, university
New projects for the development of the Russian Arctic: space matters!

New projects for the development of the Russian Arctic: space matters!

Authors: Aleksandr N. PILYASOV, Elena S. PUTILOVA
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article summarizes the results of the analysis of 23 recent projects for the development of Russian Arctic resources in terms of the spatial effects they generate or rely on. It is proved to be the feature of the economic and geographical approach to the analysis of Arctic projects. The most critical change, compared with the realities of the late Soviet era, is the reliance on the sea logistics of most new projects for the development of Russian Arctic resources. Three main spatial effects of development projects are described in detail: the localization effect, the regional effect, and the corporate effect. The first one reflects the desire of companies to the utmost compactness and a sparsely populated production site, platform solutions using artificial intelligence, remote control, robotic mining, and processing schemes. The second effect revives the Soviet district effect within the contour of the resource corporation as their desire to provide cost savings on the “soft” infrastructure pairing of neighboring production facilities. The third effect characterizes the cooperation of usually competing companies in severe natural and economic conditions for the development of Arctic projects. It is untypical but may occur in some cases. The territorial structures of the new development space are also affected by the desire of companies to absolute control of the resource chain, to rely on previously created development bases, technological, organizational, and institutional innovations, which usually have a spatial “dimension”. An “ideal” corporate scheme for the modern development of Arctic resources — a separate autonomous production platform where production and processing are deployed, with uninhabited technologies and remote control of production, contradicts state interests and creates sharp spatial and social contrasts.

Keywords: Arctic resource development project, spatial effect, marine logistics, platform solution and contradiction
Transport and infrastructural basis of the tourism development strategy in the Arkhangelsk Oblast

Transport and infrastructural basis of the tourism development strategy in the Arkhangelsk Oblast

Authors: Aleksandr Yu. TSVETKOV
Arctic and North 2017/Jul/19
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Abstract

The article, devoted to the analysis of transport and geographical locations, describes possible strategies for the development of tourism in the Arkhangelsk Oblast. The main goal of the research was the development of logistic schemes of the transportation of tourists from the places of formation of tourist flows to the Arkhangelsk Oblast. The methodological basis of the article is to determine the economic distances between potential tourist distribution centers and their places of interest in the area. Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Arkhangelsk were considered as the main towns of departure. Kargopol, Solvychegodsk, Kholmogory and Lomonosovo, Solovki, Kenozersky National Park, and Pinega caves are regarded as the main sites of tourist interest in the Arkhangelsk Oblast. It was determined that Kargopol is the most accessible for tourists, and Kenozersky National Park is the most recognizable by tourists but the least accessible. The object of world cultural heritage, the Monastery of the Transfiguration of the Saviour on Solovki is the most accessible for tourists from the territory of Karelia. It is recommended to optimize the schedule and to synchronize the work of transport for tourists to improve the transport accessibility of recreational facilities in the area. Composed logistic transport schemes allow optimizing the planning of tourist routes in the Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Keywords: transport and geographical location, destination, tourist flow, tourism development strategy

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