Tularemia – an infection caused by Francisella tularensis

Journal Title: Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu - Year 2015, Vol 21, Issue 1

Abstract

[b]Background[/b]. Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by intracellular Gram-negative bacterium[i] Francisella tularensis[/i]. [i]F. tularensis[/i] exists as multiple subspecies: type A – subspecies [i]F. tularensis[/i] tularensis and type B – subspecies[i] F. tularensis[/i] [i]holarctica [/i]and [i]F. tularensis mediasiatica[/i]. Additionally, there exists a related species, [i]Francisella novicida[/i]. Subspecies [i]F. tularensis tularensis[/i], [i]holarctica[/i], and [i]mediasiatica[/i] can all cause infection in humans, although only subspecies [i]F. tularensis tularensis[/i] is lethal. [i]F. novicida[/i] has been reported to cause infection only in immunocompromised individuals. Tularemia is also known as “rabbit fever”, “hunters’ disease”, “deerfly fever”, “tick fever”, “O’Hara’s Disease” and “Francis’ Dis ease”. Tularemia has recently become a significant re-emerging disease in the world because of the important role of bacteria in biological terrorism agents. [b]Objective.[/b] In this study, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological, host immunity and clinical features of tularemia. [b]Current state of knowledge[/b]. Tularemia is more common in some groups of people. Groups at risk include foresters, hunters, people in contact with meat, farmers and veterinarians. In humans, the clinical symptoms of tularemia may vary de pending on the bacterium’s virulence, amount, mode of entry into the body, and the person’s immunity. [i]F. tularensis [/i]can infect a host through multiple routes, including the intradermal and respiratory routes, ingestion of contaminated water or food, or aerosols and laboratory exposure. Infection typically produces a febrile illness, although specific pathology is highly dependent upon the route of infection. Tularemia can develop in different forms: ulceroglandular form, glandular form, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular and pneumonic form. Tularemia can be difficult to diagnose. Blood tests, classical microbiology and molecular techniques can help confirm the diagnosis. Antibiotics used to treat tularemia include streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Tularemia vaccines have been used to protect military and laboratory personnel at high risk for exposure, but they are not available for the general population. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The actual frequency of the disease should be carefully investigated and taken into account in order to implement specific prevention measures. The signaling mechanisms by which [i]F. tularensis[/i] modu lates the immune response remain poorly understood. The key to the development of such a vaccine will be research on the host response to [i]F. tularensis[/i] type A. Using protective clothes and repellents, as well as avoiding contact with wild and dead ani mals, provide protection from the disease. Hygienic conditions for food and beverages are extremely important, especially in countries where the oropharyngeal form is more common.

Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

Keywords

Related Articles

Ebola virus - a still unfamiliar opponent.

The Ebola virus is classified to the Filoviridae genus. The mortality rate of haemorrhagic fever fluctuates between 50%-90%. There are 5 types of this pathogen, named according to place of prevalence – Ebola-Sudan (SEBO...

Świadomość kobiet województwa śląskiego badanej w zakresie potencjalnych zagrożeń dla zdrowia wynikających ze stosowania kosmetyków zawierających parabeny

Wstęp. Parabeny są stosowane jako konserwanty w wielu produktach, szczególnie w kosmetykach. Badania in vitro oraz na zwierzętach pokazują, że mogą wywierać negatywny wpływ na nasze zdrowie. Parabeny podejrzewane są nie...

Impact of physical activity on fatness level in young women

Introduction: The risk of cardiovascular system diseases, different metabolic diseases or cancers are strongly connected with the level of fatness. Fat tissue deficiency, as well as excessive body fatness, causes fertili...

Low back pain syndromes and farmers’ occupational activity

Farmers are the largest occupational group in Poland performing hard manual labour which exerts an unfavourable effect on the spine and, therefore, are more exposed to low back pain syndromes (LBPS). The objective of th...

Reakcje anafilaktyczne spowodowane substancjami wspomagającymi odchudzanie. Opis trzech przypadków

[b]Wstęp.[/b] Produkty wspomagające proces odchudzania są powszechnie stosowane. Ich popularność i dostępność rośnie. Liczba rzetelnych badań naukowych, dotyczących wpływu suplementów diety na zdrowie, jest niewielka. Ce...

Download PDF file
  • EP ID EP58441
  • DOI -
  • Views 105
  • Downloads 0

How To Cite

Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak (2015). Tularemia – an infection caused by Francisella tularensis. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu, 21(1), 56-61. https://europub.co.uk/articles/-A-58441