Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications

Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications

Basic info

  • Publisher: Chitkara University
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/28

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Nuclear Physics, Radiation, Materials Science
  • Publisher's keywords: Nuclear Physics, Radiation, Material Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License:
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2013
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in:

This journal has '151' articles

Goodness of Generalized Seniority in Even-even Sn Isotopes

Goodness of Generalized Seniority in Even-even Sn Isotopes

Authors: Bhoomika Maheshwari
Year: 2019, Volume: 6, Number: 2
(1 downloads)
Abstract

Seniority has proved to be a unique and simple probe to address some of the complex issues underlying nuclear structure of nuclei close to magic numbers. An extension from the concept of seniority in single-j shell to generalized seniority in multi-j shell has recently been provided by us. We have, consequently, established new selection rules for gamma decays and discovered the new seniority isomers decaying via odd electric multipole operators. We have successfully explained the B(EL; L=1,2,3) behavior of various high spin isomers and other excited states. More specifically, we have been able to explain the long-standing puzzle of double hump in the B(E2) values for the first excited 2+ states of even-even Z=50 (Sn) isotopes. In the present paper, we review these generalized seniority calculations with emphasis on even-even Sn isotopes. We first discuss the generalized seniority results for the E1 decaying 13- isomers and E2 decaying 10+, 15- isomers, and then present the cases of first-excited 2+ and 3- states. The generalized seniority proves out to be a reasonably good quantum number. The significance of configuration mixing is found to be true. The calculated results has been validated till high seniority v=4 states and expected to be valid for higher seniority v=6,… states also.

Keywords: Sn isotopes, Seniority, Generalized Seniority, Isomers, B(E1), B(E2), B(E3), First excited 2 and 3- states
On the Role of Large Nuclear Gravity in Understanding Strong Coupling Constant, Nuclear Stability Range, Binding Energy of Isotopes and Magic proton numbers – A Critical Review

On the Role of Large Nuclear Gravity in Understanding Strong Coupling Constant, Nuclear Stability Range, Binding Energy of Isotopes and Magic proton numbers – A Critical Review

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam , S. Lakshminarayana
Year: 2019, Volume: 6, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

With reference to our earlier published views on large nuclear gravitational constant Gs, nuclear elementary charge es and strong coupling constant αs ≅ e/es, in this paper, we present simple relations for nuclear stability range, binding energy of isotopes and magic proton numbers. Even though ‘speculative’ in nature, proposed concepts are simple to understand, easy to implement, result oriented, effective and unified. Our proposed model seems to span across the Planck scale and nuclear scale and can be called as SPAN model (STRANGE* physics of atomic nucleus).

Keywords: Strong nuclear gravity, nuclear elementary charge, strong coupling constant, nuclear stability range, binding energy of isotopes, magic proton numbers
Response to Neutrons and γ-rays of Two Liquid Scintillators

Response to Neutrons and γ-rays of Two Liquid Scintillators

Authors: Hector Rene Vega-Carrillo , Martha Isabel Escalona-Llaguno , Luis Hernandez-Adame , Sergio M. Sarmiento-Rosales , Claudia A. Márquez-Mata , Guillermo...
Year: 2019, Volume: 6, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

UltimaGoldTM AB and OptiphaseTrisafe are two liquid scintillators made by Perkin Elmer and EG & G Company respectively. Both are commercially promoted as scintillation detectors for α and β particles. In this work, the responses to γ-rays and neutrons of UltimaGoldTM AB and OptiphaseTriSafe liquid scintillators, without and with reflector, have been measured aiming to use these scintillators as γ-rays and neutron detectors. Responses to γ-rays and neutrons were measured as pulse shape spectra in a multichannel analyzer. Scintillators were exposed to gamma rays produced by 137Cs, 54Mn, 22Na and 60Co sources. The response to neutrons was obtained with a 241AmBe neutron source that was measured to 25 and 50 cm from the scintillators. The pulse height spectra due to gamma rays are shifted to larger channels as the photon energy increases and these responses are different from the response due to neutrons. Thus, UltimaGoldTM AB and OptiphaseTrisafe can be used to detect γ-rays and neutrons.

Keywords: Response, Liquid scintillator, Detectors, Neutrons, Gamma-rays, UltimaGold, Optiphase
Mini Subcritical Nuclear Reactor

Mini Subcritical Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Hector Rene Vega-Carrillo , V.P. Singh , Claudia Rafela Escobedo-Galván , Diego Medina Castro , Arturo Agustin Ortiz Hernandez , Teodoro Rivera-Mont...
Year: 2019, Volume: 6, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

A mini subcritical nuclear reactor was designed using Monte Carlo methods. The reactor has light water as moderator, natural uranium as fuel, and a 239PuBe neutron source. In the design uranium fuel was modeled in an arrangement of concentric rings: 8.5, 14.5, 20.5 26.5, 32.5 cm-inner radius, 3 cm-thick, and 36 cm-high. Different models were made from a single ring of natural uranium to five rings. For each case, the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence distribution, the effective multiplication factor, the amplification factor, and the reactor power were estimated. The ambient dose equivalent rate outside the mini reactor was also estimated. The maximum value for the keff (0.78) was obtained when five rings of fuel were used; this value is close to 0.86 which belongs to a Nuclear Chicago subcritical reactor which requires almost twice the amount of uranium than the mini subcritical reactor.

Keywords: Subcritical nuclear reactor, Nuclear Chicago, Monte Carlo, Neutron spectrum, keff
Distinguishing Features of Radioactive Compound Nucleus Decays within the Dynamical Cluster Decay Model

Distinguishing Features of Radioactive Compound Nucleus Decays within the Dynamical Cluster Decay Model

Authors: Hemdeep , Sahila Chopra , Pooja Kaushal , Raj K. Gupta
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

In this paper, we are interested to study the distinguishing features of the decaying radioactive compound nuclei 246Bk* and 220Th*, using the Dynamical Cluster-decay Model (DCM) with deformation β and non-coplanar degree-of-freedom Φ. 246Bk* and 220Th* have so-far been studied within the DCM, using quadrupole deformations (β2i), “optimum” orientations (θopt) of the two nuclei lying in the same plane (Φ=0o), which shows that there is a non-compound nucleus (nCN) content in the observed data. The first turning point Ra (equivalently, the neck-length ΔR in Ra=R1+R2+ΔR), which fixes both the preformation and penetration paths, is used to best fit the measured evaporation residue (ER) and fusion-fission (ff) cross sections, σER, σff, respectively, in 220Th* and 246Bk*, formed via different entrance channels. In this work, we subsequently add higher multipole deformations, the octupole, and hexadecapole (β3i, β4i), `compact’ orientations θci and Φ≠00, and look fortheir effects on the nCN contribution predicted by the DCM calculations referenced above. 

Keywords: Dynamical cluster-decay model, deformed non-coplanar fragments, non-compound nucleus effects, radioactive nuclei
The Three-Body Structure of 2n and 2p Halo Nuclei

The Three-Body Structure of 2n and 2p Halo Nuclei

Authors: I. Sreeja , M. Balasubramaniam
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

A three-cluster model developed for ternary fission studies has been applied for the first time to study the three-body structure of 2n and2p halo nuclei. For the experimentally known 2n, 2p halo nuclei, all possible ternary fragmentation potential energy surface (PES) iscalculated. The two-body breakup reported earlier, clearly indicated a strong minimum in the PES corresponding to 1n/1p and/or 2n/2p clusterplus core configuration. However, the present calculations of PES reveal that the three- body breakup does not result always with 2n and/or 2p as a cluster. A 1n and/or 1p cluster along with the core is initially formed, and then the core loses one nucleon to make either a 2n plus core or 2p plus core structure. The results are substantiated with the calculations of preformation probability calculated within quantum mechanical fragmentation theory. 

Keywords: Halo nuclei, Cluster Core model, Preformation Probability
Evolution of Shapes and Search for Shape Coexistence in Sd-Shell Nuclei

Evolution of Shapes and Search for Shape Coexistence in Sd-Shell Nuclei

Authors: M. Kumawat , G. Saxena , M. Kaushik , S. K. Jain , Mamta Aggarwal
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

A detailed and systematic study has been performed using state-dependent Relativistic Mean-Field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach to investigate shape evolution for even-even isotopes of Ne, Mg, Si and S. We perform quadrupole constraint calculation using NL3* parameter and look into the variation of binding energy with respect to deformation and find the shape and deformation corresponding to energy minima. We find various isotopes showing shape coexistence and shape transition while moving from proton drip-line to neutron drip-line. These results are compared with Macroscopic-microscopic approach (Mac-Mic) with Nilson Strutinsky (NS) prescription and some other works and are found consistent for these sd-shell nuclei. 

Keywords: Macroscopic-microscopic approach, Shape-coexistence, Shape transition, sd-shell nuclei, Relativistic mean-field theory
Shape Coexistence in Hot Rotating 100Nb

Shape Coexistence in Hot Rotating 100Nb

Authors: Mamta Aggarwal
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Temperature and angular momentum induced shape changes in the well deformed 100Nb have been investigated within the theoretical framework of Statistical theory combined with triaxially deformed Nilson potential and Strutinsky prescription. Two shape coexistence, one in the ground state of 104Nb between oblate and triaxial shapes and another one between oblate and rarely seen prolate non-collective shapes in excited hot rotating 100Nb at the mid spin values around 14-16h are reported for the first time. The level density parameter indicates the influence of the shell effects and changes drastically at the shape transition. The band crossing is observed at the sharp shape transition.

Keywords: Statistical theory, shape transition, A= 80-100, level density parameter, shape coexistence
Clustering aspects in 20Ne Alpha-conjugate Nuclear System

Clustering aspects in 20Ne Alpha-conjugate Nuclear System

Authors: Manpreet Kaur , Birbikram Singh , S.K. Patra , Raj K. Gupta
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The clustering aspects in alpha-conjugate nuclear system 20Ne has been investigated comparatively within microscopic and macroscopic approaches of relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), respectively. For the ground state of 20Ne, the matter density distribution calculated within RMFT, depict the trigonal bipyramidal structure of 5α’s and within QMFT, the equivalent α+16O cluster configuration is highly preformed. For excited state corresponding to experimental available energy, the QMFT results show that in addition to α+16O clusters, other xα-type clusters (x is an integer) are also preformed but in addition np-xα type (n, p are neutron and proton, respectively) 10B clusters are having relatively more preformation probability, due to the decreased pairing strength in liquid drop energies at higher temperature. These results are in line with RMFT calculations for intrinsic excited state which show two equal sized fragments, probably 10B clusters.

Keywords: Clusters, Alpha conjugate nuclear system, Preformation probability
Effective Atomic Number Dependence of Radiological Parameters of Some Organic Compounds at 122 KeV Gamma Rays

Effective Atomic Number Dependence of Radiological Parameters of Some Organic Compounds at 122 KeV Gamma Rays

Authors: Mohinder Singh , Akash Tondon , Bhajan Singh , B.S. Sandhu
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Mass attenuation coefficient is a fundamental parameter of radiation interaction, from which the other radiological parameters like half Value Layer [HVL], tenth Value Layer [TVL], total atomic and electronic cross-sections, mass energy absorption coefficient, KERMA, CT number and effective atomic number are deduced. These parameters are extensively required in a number of fields such as diagnostic radiology, gamma ray spectroscopy, fluorescence analysis and reactor shielding. In the present work, mass attenuation coefficients are determined experimentally for some organic compounds at 122 keV incident photons using narrow-beam transmission geometry to establish a relation between effective atomic number (Zeff) and other deduced parameters. The experimental data for all these parameters are compared with the values deduced from WinXcom software package and are found to agree within experimental estimated errors. This study gives some insight about the photon interaction in some organic compounds whose effective atomic numbers match with some human body fluids.

Keywords: Effective atomic number, mass-energy absorption coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient, HVL, CT number
Mass Attenuation Coefficient Measurements of Some Nanocarbon Allotropes: A New Hope for Better Low Cost Less-Cumbersome Radiation Shielding Over A Wide Energy Range

Mass Attenuation Coefficient Measurements of Some Nanocarbon Allotropes: A New Hope for Better Low Cost Less-Cumbersome Radiation Shielding Over A Wide Energy Range

Authors: E. Rajasekhar , K.L. Narasimham , Aditya D. Kurdekar , L.A. Avinash Chunduri , Sandeep Patnaik , K. Venkataramaniah
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The mass attenuation coefficients of graphene, MWNTs and, SWNTs have been measured for gamma energy range 356 to 1332 keV from the radioactive sources 60Co, 133Ba and 137Cs using a well calibrated gamma ray spectrometer consisting of 3〃x 3〃NaI(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to a PC based 8K nuclear Multi Channel Analyser (MCA). In an interesting way results showed that MWNTs had the highest values of mass attenuation coefficients indicating their potential use as the best shielding material.

Keywords: Graphene, SWCNTs, MWCNTs, Mass attenuation coefficient, NaI (Tl) detector
Fission Dynamics: The Quest of a Temperature Dependent Nuclear Viscosity

Fission Dynamics: The Quest of a Temperature Dependent Nuclear Viscosity

Authors: E. Vardaci , A. Di Nitto , P.N. Nadtochy , A. Brondi , G. La Rana , R. Moro , M. Cinausero , G. Prete , N. Gelli , E. M. Kozulin , G.N. Knyazheva
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This paper presents a journey within some open questions about the current use of a temperature dependent nuclear viscosity in models of nuclear fission and proposes an alternative experimental approach by using systems of intermediate fissility. This study is particularly relevant because: i) systems of intermediate fissility offer a suitable frame-work since the intervals between the compound nucleus and scission point temperatures with increasing excitation energy are much smaller than in the case of heavier systems, ii) the dependence of viscosity on the temperature may change with the fissility of the composite system; iii) the opportunity to measure also observables in the evaporation residues channel translates into a larger set of effective constraints for the models.

Keywords: fission dynamics, nuclear viscosity, dynamical models, intermediate fissility systems, charged particle multiplicities
Cluster Radioactivity in 127I

Cluster Radioactivity in 127I

Authors: M. Balasubramaniam , K. Manimaran
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Using the preformation cluster model of Gupta and collaborators we have studied all the possible cluster decay modes of 127 I. The calculated half-lives are compared with recently measured lower limits of cluster decay half-lives (for the clusters like 24Ne, 28Mg, 30Mg, 32Si, 34Si, 48Ca and 49Sc) of 127I. Our calculated half-life values lies well above the experimentally measured lower limits and the trend of the values also matches with experimental ones.

Keywords: Cluster radioactivity, half-life, Fission
Partial as Well as Total Photon Interaction Effective Atomic Numbers for Some Concretes

Partial as Well as Total Photon Interaction Effective Atomic Numbers for Some Concretes

Authors: Tejbir Singh , Parjit S. Singh
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Photon interaction effective atomic number (Zeff) for partial as well as total photon interaction processes has been computed using logarithmic interpolation method for seven different concretes viz. (i) Ordinary, (ii) Hematite - Serpentine, (iii) Ilmenite - Limonite, (iv) Basalt - magnetite, (v) Ilmenite, (vi) Steel - scrap and (vii) Steel - magnetite concrete in the wide energy range from 10.0 keV to 100 GeV. It has been concluded that this method has an advantage over the atomic to electronic cross-section ratio method especially for mixtures in the intermediate energy level. However, due to lack of experimental data in the higher energy region, it is difficult to discuss, its validity in these energy regions.

Keywords: Photon interactions, mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, concrete
Alignment Studies for Tungsten Near L3  Sub-Shell Threshold Via Theoretical, Experimental and Empirical Methods

Alignment Studies for Tungsten Near L3 Sub-Shell Threshold Via Theoretical, Experimental and Empirical Methods

Authors: Ajay Sharma , Raj Mittal
Year: 2013, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Alignment studies are made for tungsten near L3 sub-shell threshold using theoretical, experimental and empirical approaches. Experimentally to measure alignment parameter, the angular distribution of L x-rays of tungsten (W-74) is measured in the angular range 0° to 120°, where maximum anisotropy is expected. The experimental measurements are performed in XRF laboratories of Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India using a three-dimensional double reflection set-up. The weighted average of alignment values with 10% error comes 0.155 ± 0.009. Theoretically, the value of alignment parameter A20 is calculated using non-relativistic dipole approximation in a point Coulomb potential and is found 0.151 at L3 threshold energy (10.676 keV). For empirical A20 evaluations, IGELCS interpolated experimental LXRF cross-section σ*Lg (g = α, ℓ) values of Mann et al with 8% reported errors are used along with the radiative decay rates. The comparison among theoretical, experimental and empirical values are similar and values being >0.1 at L3 threshold energy are certainly higher than the 5 to 8 percent uncertainties quoted in earlier experimental results.

Keywords: Alignment, cross-section, anisotropy, angular distribution, x-ray fluorescence

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.