Black Sea Journal of Agriculture

Black Sea Journal of Agriculture

Basic info

  • Publisher:
  • Country of publisher: turkey
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Nov/14

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category:
  • Publisher's keywords:
  • Language of fulltext: english, turkish
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License:
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2017
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier:
  • Content digitally archived in:
  • Deposit policy registered in:

This journal has '49' articles

THE IMPORTANCE OF SHEEP SHELTERS IN COLD CLIMATE REGION

THE IMPORTANCE OF SHEEP SHELTERS IN COLD CLIMATE REGION

Authors:
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 4
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Sheep farming is one of the important elements of animal husbandry. Since animals spend the winter and summer seasons in different regions in sheep breeding, sheep farming is shaped depending on pastures. This situation results in differences to meet animal needs such as feeding and accommodation of animal, drinking water, etc. depending on the structure of the region. Sheep breeders focus on animal nutrition and they do not show too much care to structures and surrounding areas of animal barn. Large amount of waste are released into the environment when sheep are grazing in different pastures. Appropriate shelter should be designed for animals to protect from rain and snow in winter, hot in summer especially at times when the sun's intense, and environmental pollution. Several factors have great importance for proper designing of animal shelter. Sufficient space should be left per animal and animal shelters should have adequate ventilation and waste management systems. Otherwise, due to the structural problems, some negative results will occur. Animals may be hurt each other, harmful gases increase and reaches dangerous levels, environmental pollution happens; stress in animals, reduction in feed consumption and results in reduced of yield. Considering all these factors, suitable for sheep farming in cold climate regions and designed according to local conditions, healthy, efficient and applicable plans and recommendations will present in our study.

Keywords: Climate, Sheep, Sheep breeding, Sheep shelter planning, Waste management, Farm management
THE DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF SOME MICROBIAL PREPARATIONS AGAINST APPLE SCAB DISEASE (VENTURIA INAEQUALIS (CKE) WINT.) IN ISPARTA

THE DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF SOME MICROBIAL PREPARATIONS AGAINST APPLE SCAB DISEASE (VENTURIA INAEQUALIS (CKE) WINT.) IN ISPARTA

Authors: Oğuzcan ÇALTILI, Şerife Evrim ARICI
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 4
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The effect of Trichoderma harzianum (T-22), Bacillus subtilis (BS), mycorrhizal preparations (Endo Roots Soluble) and combinations was investigated against apple scap disease [Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.]. Biological preparations were applied as foliar and soil application in different combinations. The experiment was established in gardens with a Scarlet-Spur apple variety of 3 years old in Eg􀇍irdir. Biological preparations were applied at 3 times in April-May 2017, taking into account the warnings of the early warning system at the recommended doses. Dictotom blue (Mancozeb) + Nimbus (Micobuthanil) was used as commercial fungicide. After 21 days of application, disease severity was assessed according to scale 0-4. The results obtained according to the scale values were calculated to the % disease severity by applying the Towsend-Heuberger formula and the% effects of the biological preparations according to the Abbott formula. Test results were evaluated by Tukey multiple comparison test using variance analysis with SPSS 21 statistical program. As a result, the difference between all the applications was found significant (p<0.05). Based on the results of the experiment, the lowest disease severity was obtained from T-22 (foliar application) (12.2%) against Venturia inaequalis. Disease severity was determined in the application of Dicotom blue + Nimbus (13.2%) and Mycorriza (14.8%) respectively. The percentage of disease severity in control plants was observed as 40.2%. In the experiment, it was determined that the highest % efficacy values of the biological preparations were for T-22 (foliar application) (69.65%), T-22 (foliar application) + B. subtilis (foliar application), (67.66%) Dikotom blue+Nimbus (67.19%) and mycorrhiza (soil application) + B. subtilis (foliar application), (64.18%) respectively. The lowest % efficacy values of the biological preparations were determined in the application of B. subtilis (foliar application) (48.76%), T. harzianum (soil application) (53.23%) and T-22 (soil application) + B. subtilis (foliar application) (58.71%). As a result, biological preparations could be used as an alternative to chemical control, because of its positive aspects in terms of environment and food safety.

Keywords: Mycorrhizza, Trichoderma hazrianum, Bacillus substilis, Biological control, Apple scab, Scarlet-spur
DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENT VALUES IN DRYING CITRUS PULP WITH ALTERNATIVE DRYING METHODS

DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENT VALUES IN DRYING CITRUS PULP WITH ALTERNATIVE DRYING METHODS

Authors: Gökhan FİLİK, Hasan Rüştü KUTLU
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The present study was conducted to develop a drying technology for citrus (orange, lemon and grapefruit) pulps by using scrubber heat source and determination of nutrient values in dried citrus pulps. Scrubber heat source of a calcite production plant was equipped for a drying system which by provided a dried pulp production. Firstly, water content of pulps was reduced to approximately 12% by mechanical press centrifugation. The pulps were then transferred to the vibrio-fluidizer fluid bed. After than pre-dried pulps transferred to rotary drum dryer for three hours and total water content of the pulps was reduced to approximately 8%. Chemical values of powder dried orange, lemon and grapefruit pulps such as DM in the air (926.70, 885.30 and 774.00 g/kg), CP (31.50, 65.70 and 77.00 g/kg), CF (28.50, 12.30 and 14.60 g/kg), EE (204.40, 60.40 and 65.90 g/kg), ME Mcal/kg DM (1.584, 2.492 and 2.356), pH (6.94, 6.96 and 6.93) and percentage of digestibility (61.32, 47.85 and 61.44%) were determined. In conclude, citrus pulps could be used as re-cycled industrial feed in animal nutrition by drying with scrubber heat source dryer.

Keywords: Citrus pulp, Nutrient value, Industrial waste, Drying technology
Determination of Digestive Degree and Metabolic Energy Values of Some Leguminous Feed Crop Harvest in Different Periods By In Vitro Gas Technique

Determination of Digestive Degree and Metabolic Energy Values of Some Leguminous Feed Crop Harvest in Different Periods By In Vitro Gas Technique

Authors: Çağrı Özgür ÖZKAN, Adem KAMALAK, Mustafa ŞAHİN, Önder CANBOLAT
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

In this study the nutritive values of hays from Trifolium repens, Trifolium prantense, Mellilotus officinalis, Vicia sativa harvested at vegetative, flowering, seeding stages were evaluated by chemical composition and in vitro gas production techniques. In vitro gas production were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h incubation times and their kinetics were described using the equation y = a + b (1-e-ct). In this study maturity had a significant effect on the chemical composition. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and oil contents increased with increasing maturity whereas crude protein (CP) and ash contents decreased. The decrease in CP with increasing maturity ranged from %16.65 to 23.27. On the other hand the increase in NDF and ADF with increasing maturity ranged from %10.26 to 59.63 and %16.28 to 44.23. Maturity stage had also a significant (P<0.001) effect on in vitro gas production and estimated parameters. Potential gas production, in vitro dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy (ME) contents decreased as maturity advanced. All estimated gas parameter except fermentation rate were negatively correlated with NDF and ADF contents. On the other hand ME and OMSD were positively correlated with CP. Therefore, Trifolium repens, Trifolium prantense, Mellilotus officinalis, Vicia sativa can be harvested at vegetative stage to obtain forage with higher metabolizable energy content and digestibility

Keywords: Legumes, Forage, Nutritive value, Maturity stage, Metabolizable energy
An Alternative Approach to the Conservation of Feed Plants: Microbial Protectors

An Alternative Approach to the Conservation of Feed Plants: Microbial Protectors

Authors: Ahmet AKDAĞ, Ali Vaiz GARİPOĞLU
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Different losses (washing losses, mechanical losses etc) occurred during field drying process of forages lead to losses in nutrient contents, especially protein and soluble carbohydrates. The extent of these losses increases due to the field drying time of forages. This fact encouraged the researchers to find methods which enable the rapid movement of forages from field to barn. One of these methods is to use microbial preservatives which enable the storage of forages with high moisture levels (27-28%) without any quality losses. In this study, it was discussed the possibilities of using microbial preservatives for conservation of forages.

Keywords: Hay, Drying, Forage, Microbial preservatives
Determination of Chemical Composition of Some Feedstuffs, Used for Poultry Nutrition, by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Determination of Chemical Composition of Some Feedstuffs, Used for Poultry Nutrition, by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mesut KARAMAN, Soner ERDEMİR
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical composition of diets used for poultry nutrition and find out the relationship between two methods. As feed material, 5 different layers and 3 different broilers feed stuff were used. Although there were significant relationships (R2= 0.7239; 0.9549; 0.8573 and 0,9571 ) between two methods in terms of the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ether extract and ash contents, there were not significant relationships between two methods in terms of crude fiber and starch contents (R2=0.4015 and 0.296) of mixed feeds used for poultry nutrition. This study clearly showed that the chemical composition of diets used poultry nutrition can be estimated easily and cheaply. However, NIRS needs calibration for accurate estimation of crude fibre and starch contents of feeds.

Keywords: NIRS, Chemical composition, Feeds, Poultry
EFFECT OF FUSARIUM CULMORUM SPORE SUSPENSION ON MORTALITY OF ROOT LESION NEMATODES IN VITRO CONDITIONS

EFFECT OF FUSARIUM CULMORUM SPORE SUSPENSION ON MORTALITY OF ROOT LESION NEMATODES IN VITRO CONDITIONS

Authors: Fatma Gül GÖZE ÖZDEMİR, Şerife Evrim ARICI, Bülent YAŞAR, Halil İbrahim ELEKCİOĞLU
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Three different Fusarium culmorum isolates (B4, ISP, Fc5) were used in the study and the effects of these spore suspension of isolates were investigated on the root lesion nematodes Pratylenchus thornei, P. neglectus and P. penetrans in vitro. As a result of evaluating the percent mortality rate, ISP isolate had the highest mortality effect on root nematodes and more effective on P. thornei. The lowest mortality effect of isolate was Fc5. However, Fc5 effect on P. neglectus was higher than ISP and B4 isolates. Percentage of mortality rate of B4 isolate were found 16.2 on P. penetrans, 13.1 on P. thornei and 5.5 on P. neglectus and showed the lowest effect on P. neglectus. It was found that F.culmorum spore suspension could suppress root lesion nematodes at low levels in vitro and changed depending on the isolates.

Keywords: Fusarium culmorum, Root lesion nematode, Spore suspension, Mortality
INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF THYMBRA SPICATA L. AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. ESSENTIAL OILS ON FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. CUCUMERINUM AND FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. MELONIS

INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF THYMBRA SPICATA L. AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. ESSENTIAL OILS ON FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. CUCUMERINUM AND FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. MELONIS

Authors: Yusuf BAYAN
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the antifungal activity of Thymbra spicata L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant essential oils. In this context, the antifungal effect of 0 (Control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 µlpetri-1 doses of plant essential oils on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) was identified. In order to determine the antifungal effect of essential oils, the filter paper adhered to the covers of the petri dishes was impregnated with the micropipette. Additionally, it was suggested that the plant essential oils inhibited the mycelial growth of FOM and FOC compared to the control. As a result of the study, 8 µlpetri-1 dose of T. spicata essential oil inhibited the mycelium growth of FOC and FOM by 100%. On the other hand, it was determined that 8 µlpetri-1 dose of R. officinalis essential oil inhibited the mycelium growth of FOC and FOM by 61.32% and 71.97%, respectively. In the study, LC50 and LC90 values were also calculated by carrying out a dose-effect study. The LC50 and LC90 values of FOM and FOC for T. spicata’nın essential oil were calculated as 0.58-1.26 µL and 0.46-1.07 µL, respectively, while the LC50 and LC90 values, of FOM and FOC for R. officinalis essential oil were calculated as 4.04-37.56 µL and 3.92-95.84 µL respectively. The T spicata, R. officinalis essential oils used in the experiment have a potential to be an alternative to fungus in controlling FOC and FOM diseases. It was concluded that the essential oils used in the experiment have a potential to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides in controlling diseases.

Keywords: Antifungal effect, Thymbra spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Essential oil
The Problems and Future of Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki L.) Cultivation in Turkey

The Problems and Future of Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki L.) Cultivation in Turkey

Authors: Muharrem ÖZCAN
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

Persimmon is one of pome fruits in which significant development in production and consumption has not been obtained in Turkey. Although persimmon is a valuable fruit thanks to its high nutritional value, the demand for it in our country and around the world has not reached to the desired amount. Low recognition level of the fruit, lack of high quality crops to present to consumers and underproduction are some of the reasons for the low demand for the fruit. Success in cultivation is measured with the level of marketability of the crops. It can be seen that factors that affect yield and quality are not considered adequately in cultivation of persimmon. These factors are paying no mind to the flower structure and fertilization physiology; not setting crown structure in a balanced way; sunburn; deficiencies in cultural treatments and failures after harvest. One of the other problems about persimmon is that requests of the market are not taken into account in production. Carrying out cultural treatments consciously besides choosing the cultivars that are appropriate for ecology and target markets can increase yield and quality and provide consumer satisfaction. The increase in demand as a result of these will encourage production.

Keywords: Persimmon, Drop, Marketing, Flower structure
FARMER COOPERATIVES AS AN AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION SYSTEM FOR ORGANIZING AND CHANGING RURAL LAND USE FROM PEASANTRY TO COLLECTIVE ACTION AMONG VILLAGERS IN IRAN

FARMER COOPERATIVES AS AN AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION SYSTEM FOR ORGANIZING AND CHANGING RURAL LAND USE FROM PEASANTRY TO COLLECTIVE ACTION AMONG VILLAGERS IN IRAN

Authors: Farhood GOLMOHAMMADI
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The development of cooperation in agrarian sector is one of the most important areas of agro-economic reform. Cooperative is a multi-dimensional association, which creates macro- and micro-economic capacities in the country. Its success is explained by the improved economic and social environment. Cooperative ensures the offset sources of financial markets and contributes to macro-economic stabilization in the market in terms of product quality, safety, traceability and stable fiscal and monetary balance; halting migration, development of agricultural infrastructure, job creation, inculcation of firm and stable production factors, and introduction of the protected agro-ecological and biological productions and innovative technologies. The basis for sustainable and balanced development of agricultural production and processing enterprises consists in their mutual integration. Within the frames of agricultural cooperation, the use of vertical integration as a specific form is an objective necessity at that development stage of production relations, when the urgency of the organic relationship between agricultural production and processing enterprises grows particularly. Supporting the agro-industrial integration within the framework of agricultural cooperatives is possible through the creation of the infrastructure of the intensive primary production and processing enterprises. In this article, state Farmer cooperatives (FC) as an agricultural innovation system (AIS) for organizing and changing rural land use from peasantry to collective action among villagers in Iran.

Keywords: Farmer cooperatives, Innovation system, Rural, Land use, Collective action, Iran
Determination of Nutritive Value of Some Legume Tree Fruits

Determination of Nutritive Value of Some Legume Tree Fruits

Authors: Özer KURT, Durmuş ÖZTÜRK
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(0 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of the current experiment was to determine nutritive value of pods five different legumes tree fruits; Acacia karroo, Albiza julibrissin, Cerotonia siliqua, Leucaena leucocephala, Gleditsia triacanthos, widely used in Turkey. The collected pod samples from Kahramanmaras were dried under shadow and grounded to pass through 1 mm sieve for chemical analysis and in vitro gas production (IVGP). The species had significant effects on the chemical composition, IVGP, metabolisable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) (p < 0.001). Crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and condensed tannin (CT) contents ranged from 2.98-6.67%, 8.52-22.17%, 37.62-54.44%, 27.53-40.71% and 0.72-2.69%, respectively. Although pods from Acacia julibrissin had highest CP content, pods from Acacia karroo had highest CA content. On the other hand, pods from Leucaena leucocephala had highest NDF content whereas pods from Acacia karroo had highest ADF content. Pods from Cerotonia siliqua had highest IVGP, ME and OMD. As a conclusion; it can be said that pods from legume trees investigated in the current study had important potential for ruminant animals to meet protein and energy requirements.

Keywords: Legume tree, Fruit, Nutritive value, Digestibility, Metabolisable energy
AN INVESTIGATION OF FEASIBILITY OF ORGANIC PLANT PRODUCTION IN GÖKSUN DISTRICT OF KAHRAMANMARAŞ PROVINCE

AN INVESTIGATION OF FEASIBILITY OF ORGANIC PLANT PRODUCTION IN GÖKSUN DISTRICT OF KAHRAMANMARAŞ PROVINCE

Authors: Selma BOYACI, Şerife AKKEÇECİ
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(0 downloads)
Abstract

In this paper, agricultural areas of Göksun District in Kahramanmaras province were studied in terms of organic agriculture, which is a method of farming, where natural equilibrium is maintained, sustainability is ensured and new generations can be grown with healthy food, and opinions and suggestions regarding the organic plant production potential of the province based on the results obtained from the data of Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Livestock and TURKSTAT and on the scientific papers and on-site examinations regarding the subject were included and the feasibility was investigated. With the advantage of its fertile soils that have not been polluted yet, the region will become attractive to investors who will make organic production, hence the income level of the local farmer will increase. Due to these and similar reasons, it was concluded that the agricultural structure of the Göksun district is suitable for organic production.

Keywords: Organic, Organic farming, Organic plant production, Göksun, Fruit growing
The Effects of Sodic Water Applications at Different Levels on The Leaf Area and Leaf Area Estimation of Bean Plants

The Effects of Sodic Water Applications at Different Levels on The Leaf Area and Leaf Area Estimation of Bean Plants

Authors: Danaya YERKİN, Kadir Ersin TEMİZEL
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the effects of sodic water applications at different levels on the leaf area of bean plants in the experimental area of Ondokuz Mayıs University Agricultural Faculty. Besides, it is aimed to estimate the leaf area by the width and length measurements obtained from the leaf. The study was carried out in July-August-September period with a top plastic covered greenhouse. For this purpose, four different sodium level irrigation water applications were chosen as subjects, ranging from S0 (SAR = 0), S15 (SAR = 15), S30 (SAR = 30) and S40 (SAR = 40). CaCl2, MgSO4, and NaCl salts were used for the preparation of irrigation waters having different sodium levels in the study. WebplotDigitizer computer program was used for leaf area measurements. Using the obtained equations, leaf areas can be determined easily and without damage to the plant. Equations have been determined for S0, S15, S30 and S40 respectively as YA=-22.066+2.782*x+5.221*y, YA=-2.138+2.318*x+6.091*y, YA=-25.062+2.057*x+6.968*y ve YA=-13.151+1.474*x+5.156*y. In equations x and y shows leaf length (cm) and leaf width (cm) respectively. Multiple regression is used in finding equations. It was found that the results of the equations were significant at the level of p <0.001. It is clear that leaf areas are well predicted by equations.

Keywords: Bean, Irrigation, Sodium absorbsion rate, Leaf area model
THE EFFECT OF IBA AND PH ON ROOTING OF TEA CUTTINGS

THE EFFECT OF IBA AND PH ON ROOTING OF TEA CUTTINGS

Authors: Abdulkadir YAVAŞİ, Muharrem ÖZCAN
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(0 downloads)
Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rooting medium pH and IBA treatments in rooting of tea cuttings. In the study, 10 tea genotypes with ‘Tuğlalı’ are used as materials and perlite is used as the rooting medium. In the experiment, the effects of three different pH levels (7.0, 5.5, and 3.5) and 3 different applications of IBA (0, 4000, and 6000 ppm) on rooting tea cuttings and growth of tea sprouts were investigated. According to the findings of the study, the best results in the tea plants are taken from 6000 ppm IBA and 5.5 pH applications. In 6000 ppm IBA, rooting rate is 65.26 %, the most advanced root length is 4.90 cm, the root number is 4.97 units and the root quality is defined as 1.33. In cases where the rate of rooting medium pH is 5.5, rooting rate is 69.69 %, the most advanced root length is 9.41 cm, root number is 8.70 units and root quality is seen as 1.70. As the growth rate of tea cuttings, 3.5 pH (79.28 %); in terms of the ratio of growth length, 6000 ppm IBA (7.96 cm) and 3.5 pH (9.20 cm) have given the best results. When all the results are evaluated together, 6000 ppm IBA treatment at 5.5 pH level is recommended for rooting and quality sapling production.

Keywords: Tea, Cutting, IBA, pH, Rooting
The Significance of Colours in Consumption and Health

The Significance of Colours in Consumption and Health

Authors: Muharrem ÖZCAN
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(0 downloads)
Abstract

While the world is trying to provide food for the increasing population, people are also in search of alternative nutrition in order to be protected from the diseases threatening human life. Nowadays, recommendations of nutrition with horticultural crops, especially fruits and vegetables, are made as an alternative way of treatment for the diseases threatening human life. In recent years, sometimes a fruit or vegetable comes to the fore like the trend of the year or consumptions based on colours or content are recommended. People need approximately 70 nutritional elements to lead a healthy life. It can be stated that fruits-vegetables started to be perceived as medicine due to the consumptions based on colours and content. Every agricultural crop contains several nutritional elements at different levels that are necessary for human life. Instead of thinking about the content of crops, it is more beneficial to set a diet with different crops for leading a healthy life. This is called eat the rainbow. It is also true that colours affect human psychology and eagerness to buy as well as consumption. Instead of consumptions that are perceived as trend recently, it is more appropriate to know that variety in consumption leads to healthier nutrition. Besides, it is more appropriate to consider agricultural crops as crops that should be consumed regularly to protect health rather than as medicine for treatment after diseases occur.

Keywords: Colour effects, Antioxidant, Eat the rainbow, Functional Foods

About Europub

EuroPub is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature, with indexed records from active, authoritative journals, and indexes articles from journals all over the world. The result is an exhaustive database that assists research in every field. Easy access to a vast database at one place, reduces searching and data reviewing time considerably and helps authors in preparing new articles to a great extent. EuroPub aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.