Journal of Current Biomedical Reports

Journal of Current Biomedical Reports

Basic info

  • Publisher: Pars Biomedical Publisher
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Open journal system ojs
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2020/Sep/17

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: BioMedicine; Biology; Epidemiology; Biotechnology; Pharmacology; Nanotechnology
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 3 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2020
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '11' articles

A light shining through darkness: probiotic against COVID-19

A light shining through darkness: probiotic against COVID-19

Authors: Meysam Hasannejad-Bibalan, Hamed Hekmatnezhad
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

The colonic microbiota playa key role in human gastrointestinal tract physiology include maintaining homeostasis of the large bowel and modulating the host immune response. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) especially Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are ...

Keywords: Probiotic, Lactic acid bacteria, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on HIV-positive individuals

The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on HIV-positive individuals

Authors: Kimia Sharifian, Razieh Dowran
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was first identified in December 2019 has been announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization(WHO) in March 2020 after infecting millions of people all over the world.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, HIV
Should metformin be continued after hospital admission in patients with COVID-19?

Should metformin be continued after hospital admission in patients with COVID-19?

Authors: Nasser Mikhail, Soma Wali
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

In most patients with diabetes, guidelines recommend discontinuation of oral anti-diabetic agents. Preliminary data suggest that pre-admission metformin use may have mortality benefit in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the hospital. To review metformin safety, particularly its impact on mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Review of English literature by PubMed search until September 18, 2020. Search terms included diabetes, COVID-19, metformin, retrospective studies, meta-analyses, pertinent reviews, pre-print articles and consensus guidelines are reviewed. Retrospective studies suggest that metformin use prior to hospital admission may be associated with reduction in mortality among patients with diabetes admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. Meanwhile, continuing metformin administration after hospital admission did not have significant impact on 28-day all-cause mortality. Metformin use after hospitalization of patients with COVID-19 was associated with approximately 4.6 times increase risk of lactic acidosis in patients with severe symptoms of COVID-19, patients taking 2 gm/d of metformin or higher, and patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 kg/m2. Metformin intake in hospital was associated with significant decrease risk of heart failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients with diabetes and COVID-19 admitted to the hospital, metformin should not be used in presence of severe symptoms of COVID-19, kidney dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), and with daily doses of 2 gm or more due to increased risk of lactic acidosis.

Keywords: COVID-19, Diabetes, Metformin, Safety, Mortality, Lactic acidosis
Current applications of the microbiome engineering and its future: A brief review

Current applications of the microbiome engineering and its future: A brief review

Authors: Zahra Malayejerdi, Omid Pouresmaeil
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 2
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Abstract

In the human body there are many microorganisms with a variable genetic content. These microorganisms play an important role in the metabolism, homeostasis, immune system and generally human health. Over the millions of years, different microorganisms adapted to each other, and different environmental communities formed on Earth. Microbial communities, known as microbiome, could exist in living or non-living environments, such as human body and plants, as well as in soil, oceans, and air. The main purpose of microbiome engineering is mostly human microbiome and is now used in the treatment of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, etc. The research data in this thesis were collected from the main medical article sources including Web of science, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. Articles on microbiome which published during 2010-2019 were reviewed. The widespread impacts of the microbiome on the ecosystems and the increased attention to microbiome recognition are factors contributing to the creation of microbiome engineering science, and recent advances in genome sequencing and metagenomic science have made microbiome analysis apart from cultivation process. Microbiome engineering has advantages and disadvantages. So, according to the positive aspects and efforts to increase applications, this science could lead to advances in microbial engineering, and have positive effects on human health. Although microbiome engineering is a new field, there has been lots of progressions in recent years that can be an important strategy for improving human health by microbial manipulation leading to the changing of microbial population.

Keywords: Microbiome, Human Gut Microbiome, Microbiome engineering, Microbiota
Molecular characterization of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from clinical sample in Isfahan, Iran

Molecular characterization of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from clinical sample in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar, Meisam Ruzbahani, Seyed Asghar Havaei
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(1 downloads)
Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main significant human pathogens which can produce various toxins such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) which is known as a prominent toxin associated with S. aureus infections. PVL-positive strains can cause a wide variety of skin, soft tissue, necrotizing pneumonia, fasciitis and life-threatening infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluating the molecular characteristics of PVL-positive strains such as the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, agr types and exfoliative toxin genes. In this study, a total of 152 S. aureus strains were collected from clinical samples of patients who referred to Isfahan’s Alzahra hospital (Iran). The isolates were confirmed phenotypically by conventional methods and then PVL-positive isolates were identified by PCR molecular test. Thereafter, antibiotic resistance pattern, agr groups (I, II, III, and IV), exfoliative toxins (eta and etb), mecA gene and SCCmec various types were carried out. Totally, 52 (34.2%) of strains were positive for PVL. Six PVL-positive strains harbored mecA gene, one strain had SCCmec I, and 5 strains SCCmec type IV. The highest ratio of agr groups belonged to group (I) and the (eta) gene was also detected in 18 isolates. The PVL-positive S. aureus strains can cause more serious infections, so identification of the genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance monitoring of these strains is necessary.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, PVL, Antibiotic resistance, Virulence genes
Immunogenicity, antigenicity and epitope mapping of Salmonella InvH protein: An in silico study

Immunogenicity, antigenicity and epitope mapping of Salmonella InvH protein: An in silico study

Authors: Behzad Dehghani, Tayebeh Hashempour, Zahra Hasanshahi, Iraj Rasooli
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

InvH is an indispensable part of T3SS-I and has a significant role in SPI-I mediated effector protein translocation. The InvH mutations have significant effects including reduced secretory and inflammatory responses that result from preventing the normal secretion of several proteins. Our team previous studies showed the capable ability of InvH to induce the humoral immune system to prevent almost all Salmonella strains infections. The current study aimed to determine all aspects of this protein using several bioinformatics tools and find the differences among all Salmonella strains. This data could pave the way for further studies about InvH protein and the production of an effective vaccine against Salmonella infections. InvH sequences for all Salmonella strains were obtained from GenBank and analyzed to determine physicochemical properties, B-Cell and T-Cell epitopes, and reliable structures. Results showed some minimal differences among Salmonella strains. B-Cell and T-Cell epitopes predicted by numerous software approved the ability of this protein to induce both humoral and cellular immune systems remarkably. This study provided a comprehensive data to determine all features of InvH protein and our results showed the ability of this protein to design a capable vaccine and the effect of amino acid changes on structure and physico-chemical properties, and epitopes.

Keywords: InvH; Salmonella; Bioinformatics; SPI-I; Vaccine
Molecular investigation of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes in the Salmonella isolates obtained from children with acute diarrhea

Molecular investigation of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes in the Salmonella isolates obtained from children with acute diarrhea

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Tayefeh-Arbab, Zohre Baseri, Mojtaba Taghizadeh Armaki, Mohsen Karami, Saman Alhooei, Abazar Pournajaf
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Salmonellosis is an important public health concern among children in worldwide. Extended-spectrum β-lactams (ESBLs) cause resistance to clinically important beta-lactams which are generally used to treat invasive Salmonella infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of SHV, TEM and CTX-M genes in different strains of Salmonella isolated from children with acute diarrhea and to determine their resistance profile. In this cross-sectional study, 300 fecal samples were collected from children referred to the Amirkola Children's Hospital, Babol, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done according to the CLSI guideline. ESBLs-producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test method on the Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Multiplex-PCR was performed using oligonucleotide specific primers to detect of SHV, TEM and CTX-M genes. In total, 7% (n; 21/300) salmonella were isolated, which 61.9%, 28.6% and 9.5% were Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhi, respectively. The prevalence of the ESBL-producing isolates were 52.4%. M-PCR results showed that 42.8%, 38.1% and 14.3% of isolates were carried CTX-M, TEM and SHV genes, respectively. Also, 18.2% of isolates harbored CTX-M, and TEM genes, simultaneously. The high rate of ESBLs-producing Salmonella strains in the pediatric patients is an alarm. It is also recommended that alternative drugs be used with less resistance, which requires further investigation.

Keywords: Beta-lactamase; Salmonella; Diarrhea; Pediatric; PCR
Bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of female patients with urinary tract infection referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, 2019

Bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of female patients with urinary tract infection referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, 2019

Authors: Sousan Akrami, Reza Abouali, Mohammad Mostafa Olapour, Rozhin Heidary Lal Abady, Hamid Yazdaninejad, Arshid Yousefi Avarvand
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent infections among women, and if untreated could lead to severe complications. The treatment of UTI is difficult due to the appearance of pathogens with increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. This study thus aimed to determine the bacterial etiological pathogens of UTI and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the pathogens isolated. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from March to September 2019 on a total of 339 women referred to Imam Khomeini Teaching Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from the patients and were cultured. The presence of significant bacteriuria (> 105 CFU/mL) was determined using the plate count method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by the standard disk diffusion method. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (54.8%), Klebsiella (18.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.9%), Proteus (8%), and Acinetobacter (5.1%). E. coli, as the most common pathogen of UTIs, showed the most resistance to cephalosporins and the least resistance to imipenem. According to the findings, E. coli was the most common cause of UTI in our region. Considering the rate of UTI, and the importance of preventing its severe complications, a survey of regional resistance patterns and timely treatment can control the development of its resistant bacteria.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection; Antibiotic resistance; Uropathogens
Evaluation the intestinal level of LCN2/NGAL in patients with Clostridium difficile infection in the south of Iran

Evaluation the intestinal level of LCN2/NGAL in patients with Clostridium difficile infection in the south of Iran

Authors: Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini-Alfatemi, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium that recognized an important pathogen of humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the intestinal level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) as a disease activity marker in the south of Iran. This cross-sectional study conducted from October 2017 to June 2018 on patients referred to Nemazee and Amir Hospital in Shiraz, South of Iran. Patients less than two years old were excluded from the study. The study population was consist of 46 cases (Symptomatic patients that confirmed as a CDI), and 21 control individuals (Asymptomatic patients colonized by C. difficile). C. difficile isolates were identified by conventional microbiological producers and amplification of housekeeping gene by PCR method. The level of NGAL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the instructions of the kit manufacturer. The results showed that the level of NGAL in symptomatic patients' (case group) was higher than asymptomatic carriers (control group), 5.9 ng/mL vs. 4.1 ng/mL; however the observed difference was not statistically significant. Also, in both groups, the mean level of NGAL was significantly higher in patients with gastrointestinal diseases than others. In summary, despite all the limitations, the results of the present study indicate that the intestinal level of NGAL is a biological indicator of intestinal inflammation, regardless of CDI. However, further study needs to elucidate the role of NGAL in inflammation caused by bacterial infections.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile; CDI; Lipocalin-2; NGAL; Gastrointestinal diseases
In silico prediction of B cell epitopes of the hemolysis-associated protein 1 for vaccine design against leptospirosis

In silico prediction of B cell epitopes of the hemolysis-associated protein 1 for vaccine design against leptospirosis

Authors: Sakineh Poorhosein Fookolaee, Somayyeh Talebishelimaki, Mohammad Taha Saadati Rad, Mostafa Akbarian Rokni
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Leptospirosis is known as a zoonotic disease of global importance originated from infection with the spirochete bacterium Leptospira. Although several leptospirosis vaccines have been tested, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research. Therefore, this study was conducted to predict B cell epitopes of the hemolysis-associated protein 1 (Hap1) for vaccine design against leptospirosis. For prediction of linear epitopes, the sequence of extracellular region of Hap1 was submitted to ABCpred, BCPREDs, Bcepred, Bepipred and Ellipro servers. DiscoTope 2.0 and B-pred servers were used for prediction of conformational epitopes from the entire PDB structure of Hap1 that obtained from the homology modeling method. Further analysis for solvent accessible areas and relative solvent accessibility of all the residues on the PDB structures using Naccess program and NetSurfP server defined that predicted conformational B cell epitopes had higher solvent accessible and their residues were exposed on the surface therefore, immunoinformatics analysis showed that hemolysis-associated protein 1 can properly stimulate the B cells immune responses.

Keywords: Leptospirosis; Hemolysis-associated protein 1; B cell epitope; in silico
Efficiency of Akkermansia muciniphila in type 2 diabetes and obesity

Efficiency of Akkermansia muciniphila in type 2 diabetes and obesity

Authors: Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Rostami, Saman Shalibeik, Bahram Nasr Esfahani
Year: 2020, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Akkermansia muciniphila is an anaerobic species of gut microbiome that has been proposed as a new functional microbiota with probiotic properties. Recent research has shown the amazing abilities of probiotic bacteria, A. muciniphila, which resides in most people's intestines. These bacteria affect the body if it increases or decreases abdominal fat. The presence of A. muciniphila has opened new ways for the use of this plentiful intestinal symbiont in next-generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucosal thickness and enhancing bowel barrier function. As a result, host metabolic markers improve. The host functions that are disrupted in various diseases with a particular focus on metabolic disorders in animals and humans. A specific protein in the outer membrane of A. muciniphila called Amuc-110 could in the future be a strong candidate for drug production. As a result, we suggest that microbes and our microbiology or gut microbiome knowledge could be a new source for future treatments. The objectives of this review are to summarize the data available on the distribution of A. muciniphila gut in health and disease, to provide insights into the environment and its role in the creation of microbial networks at the mucosal interface, as well as to discuss recent research on its role in regulation.

Keywords: Akkermansia muciniphila; Type 2 diabetes; Obesity; Prebiotics

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