Literature as a favourable tool for English language teaching/learning has often been neglected and hence study of
literature has been eliminated from the English language curriculum. In fact language and literature go hand in
hand in enhancing the learning experiences of a L2 learner because literature is a rich language learning source.
Even the textbooks prescribed for language study also fail to speak about the artistic making of a literary piece and
its aesthetic effect. The textbooks are prepared only with a language orientation and do not regard the literary value
of a given poem prescribed for study. ELT practitioners need to sensitize students towards the literary competencies
to be sensitive to the various styles, forms, conventions etc. of language. This paper underscores the importance of
study of literature in English language learning at the under graduate (UG) level in Andhra Pradesh and
Telangana, where study of literature is relegated into the background in preference to language orientation. An
attempt is made to discuss the viewpoints of great scholars like Widdowson, Littlewood, Brumfit and Carter, Collie
and Slater, and Lazar, to name a few, on using Literature in the study of language. Notions like Defamiliarization
and Foregrounding are used in the analysis of a selected poem by way of illustration. The conceptual framework
provided in this paper can be applied to analyze and interpret any literary work in TESL classrooms to enhance the
language learning experience.
Keywords: TEACHING OF LITERATURE, ELT
The primal objective of this article is to detect major allusions and their significance in Eliot’s poem The Waste
Land. This poem is tremendously tough because of diverse interruptions in the narrative level, piled up contrasts,
abundant use of allusions and a number of quotations which are from other languages rather than from English.
The poet delineates spiritual crisis, pessimism, sexual perversion, infertility, cruelty and despondency in the Modern
World through different allusions taken from multifarious unprecedented sources. The article writer extracts some
words, verse lines and stanzas which are used as allusions in the poem, and tries to discern their significance in the
poem. Their significance lies in their contribution to the depiction of major messages or themes of the poem. This
article concludes with the assertion that the allusions employed in this poem are apt and felicitous. The teachers and
the students who are interested in teaching and studying this poem will be benefitted from reading this article.
Keywords: Allusions, Spiritual Crisis, T.S. Eliot’s Poem The Waste Land
This article presents the results of a study on the effects of COVID-19 and the changes that crept into English
Language Teaching of EFL learners of GFP program in Muscat College, Oman. The study illustrates that Language
Teaching as we know underwent a dramatic change due to the unforeseen and unpredictable situation that
presented in the form of COVID-19 and the changes that had to be made to curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation of
students’ performance while at the same time maintaining the quality of teaching and sustained enthusiasm of the
learners. The analysis of students’ summative evaluation results clearly show that a majority of students showed
remarkable affinity to learning through the methods employed by teachers using online applications such as
Microsoft Teams, Moodle, etc. However, the task at hand for both the teachers and students was not easy. Many
students did not have a good WiFi connection, some had difficulty in accessing the network, while some did not have
necessary equipment at home, so they were forced to adapt to a varied ways of learning and so on. Though it seems
like problems galore, nevertheless almost all the students were able to take their final evaluation online, which
proves that if implemented rightly and with little flexibility on the part of both the learner and the instructor, online
learning of English Language during the initial part of lockdown proved to be a success in Muscat College.
Keywords: COVID-19, ELT, e-Learning, Pedagogy, Technological Tools
The language used by authors and the characters they create is, of course, of the utmost importance when it comes
to our understanding of texts and, throughout history, this language has been used as a shield behind which
characters (and their authors) can hide. This paper focuses on the language of sexuality and shows how characters
use language to conceal the true nature of their sexuality in two different ways through two different novels:
Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita and Kate Chopin’s The Awakening. I argue that, in Lolita, Humbert Humbert uses
language not only to hide his own perversions but that, in fact, he is successful in doing so, normalizing it in the
process, generating sympathy for himself, and painting all those who oppose him as villainous. In The Awakening,
we take a look at the representation of female sexuality, where Chopin hides the controversial matter of Edna
Pontellier’s sexual awakening and subsequent sexual autonomy behind an intense narrative style. In both cases,
language is used in an attempt to protect oneself, either from judgement or persecution, when discussing the
conventionally taboo subject matter of sexuality. And, in both cases, this attempt has been a futile one.
Keywords: The Awakening, Lolita, Paedophilia, Perversion, Romance, Sexual Awakening
This paper presents Academic Language Proficiency and how to use general and content-specific vocabulary,
specialized or complex grammatical structures-all for the purpose of acquiring new knowledge and skills. English
for Academic Purposes (EAP) has emerged out of the broader field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). EAP
teachers often attempt to choose the best way to assist students with Academic English. EAP educators show
wholeheartedly their expertise in classroom instruction, their responsiveness to students' needs through educational
programs arranging and materials improvement.
Keywords: Academic English, EAP, ESP, Language Skills
This study aims to explore the perceptions of in-service English teachers towards teaching grammar in secondary
level. I employed a qualitative research design. The study was carried out within the theoretical framework of social
constructivism and cognitivism. Three in-service English teachers of secondary level, teaching at three different
community schools in Rupandehi district, Nepal were purposively selected as research participants. They were
interviewed using a semi-structured interview technique to collect relevant information for the purpose. The study
reveals that in-service English teachers have positive attitudes towards teaching grammar. Furthermore, they
opined that grammar plays a central role in teaching English language, and should not be taught deductively. In
addition, they were in favour of the use of inductive method of teaching grammar as this method enhances the
students to produce syntactically and semantically correct sentences with appropriate and relevant vocabulary. The
study further demonstrates that deductive method is also in practice to teach grammar because the students feel
better and more comfortable to receive rules and structures of grammar from the teachers. This study contributes to
English teachers' comprehensive understanding of teaching grammar in their classrooms.
Keywords: Deductive Method, Inductive Method, Teaching English Grammar
The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of poetry in improving students’ reading comprehension. The
study employed pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design, based on a non-equivalent control group. The
study was conducted on 100 grade 12 students in Mekdela Preparatory and Secondary School. From the total of 360
grade 12 students enrolled in 2018/19 academic year, only two sections, i.e. section A(n=48) and section B(n=52)
were considered as experimental and control group respectively as one of the researchers was assigned to teach the
two classes. Due this convenient sampling technique was used to select the study groups, and lottery method
was employed to determine the experimental and control group. The data collection instruments used in this study
were tests and questionnaire. To check the two sections pre-intervention reading comprehension level, two
equivalent pre -tests were administered, and to measure the two groups’ ‘post intervention reading
comprehension improvement, two equivalent post -tests were given. The findings from the post -tests revealed
that the experimental group showed significant reading comprehension improvement over that of control group
in which significant pre-to post reading achievement test scores improvement was not seen. The result from the one
sample t test data analysis showed that the study was acceptable and effective. To this end, EFL teachers are
strongly advised to incorporate efficient and sufficient literary texts in the language teaching program. Also, EFL
curriculum developers ought to include literary materials when preparing any English text books.
Keywords: Poetry, Learners, EFL, Reading, Comprehension
Amitav Ghosh is the crucial writer who mirrors the actuality of Indian reality. All his significant works have
received enormous academic consideration over the globe and it has welcomed and fashioned a lot of literary
criticism. He has composed reliably great books and non-anecdotal composition works which have won
extraordinary praise both in India and abroad. Ghosh gives great prominence to social and cultural incidents in his
writings for bringing about a significant impact among the masses of this world. His creative writing, both fiction
and non-fiction, in general, take on issues of history and geography as well as politics and culture. His thoughtful
standpoint of the world makes him the citizen of the world, since he emphatically accepts that under the roof of the
sky, the world is one. The novelist makes his books as a weapon to delete the shadow lines between individuals and
nations and he needs to rebuild the world without war and as a blossoming garden with full of aromatic smell.
Keywords: Diaspora, Fundamentalism, Social Milieu, Novels of Amitav Ghosh
The article shows the advantages of using mobile Apps in language learning, types of language learning Apps, how
to search for language Apps, criteria for selecting mobile language Apps, instructional stages with mobile Apps, the
instructor’s role and some implications for teaching and learning with mobile Apps.
Keywords: Mobile Apps, Language Apps, Mobile Learning, Mobile Technology, Smart Phones
Jiddu Krishnamurti is acknowledged as a foremost spiritual educator in India as well as in other parts of the world
including Britain and the USA. His public talks inspired numerous people and many of his books on education have
been published. Krishnamurti can be viewed as an outstanding exponent of the Indian religious tradition from a
variety of standpoints. Krishnamurti founded seven schools, with all of which he maintained close contact. The talks
to teachers discussed the meaning of right education; the long vision; action; the true denial; competition; fear;
teaching; and learning; the good mind; the negative approach; inward flowering, etc.
Keywords: Jiddu Krishnamurti’s Talks on education, The Essence of Teaching
Democracy is the only best system of any government. It stands on strong pillars namely Executive, Parliament and
Judiciary. Indian Constitution was framed on these three independent structures and one cannot override on the
other under any circumstances. However, the framers of the Constitution, taking into consideration some aspects
like increasing population, illiteracy, social conditions, developmental requirements in various fields, etc., a clause
was enshrined to the effect that Parliament, which consists of people elected representatives to provide changing
needs for establishing a welfare state, to amend the constitution from time to time without subverting the main
theme of the constitution. Unfortunately, slowly moral and ethical values in all spheres of activities are relegated to
back seat and high volume of kleptocracy emerged and is widening its vicious wings to throw away the trust and
belief between and among the people. Today, all well said three pillars are losing its sheen and giving wider scope
to the tattlers publicly. This is tormenting the righteous persons.
However, it is disheartening to go through a news report that about 4000 criminal cases are pending in various
courts against politicians, out of which 2500 cases are registered against sitting legislators. All these cases are
ranging from corruption to money laundering. Amicus Curiae in a reply to Supreme Court, some of these cases are
stuck at the stage of framing charges. In a democratic set up, elected representatives are rapacious to gain power
and pelf on political platform, an easy and comfortable profession even for one term or still less time. Therefore,
they are disdained by people inherently though not open.
Keywords: Constitution, Judges Plight, Comments on Judiciary
The paper focuses on the main aspects of using blended learning for the English language training (ELT) in the
Ukrainian professional military education (PME) institutions. It examines the major challenges and key problems
while implementing blended ELT, introduces the recommendations for further developing the hybrid teaching
methodology (C. Rao, 2019) in the PME institutions.
Keywords: Blended Learning, ELT, Hybrid Teaching Methodology, Ukrainian PME Institutions
Many EFL students have difficulty generating ideas for writing topics. Writing instructors tend to select topics that
are too abstract, repetitive, uninteresting, vague, too broad or unfamiliar. To help students generate ideas for writing
topics, the present study suggests the integration of participation goals in writing instruction. Participation goals are
those that require the students’ involvement in social and civic issues. Writing teachers can select topics related to
local and global social, educational, health, political and/or technological issues with which the students are familiar
and to which they can relate. The students can describe a problem, its causes and suggest solutions to it. The
integration of participation goals proved to be effective in developing college students’ writing skills.
Keywords: EFL Writing Problems, EFL Writing Instructors, Generating Ideas
The narrative technique is an inseparable part of the novel. Narayan employed different narrative techniques in his
fiction. Narayan writes about social issues and problems of south Indian especially common people in his novels
and stories. Narayan has taken up social problems of day to day life; and he has attempted to solve the issues
through the intellect of characters. He presents the traditional narrative technique of the storyteller effectively.
Narayan is considered as a ‘born story- teller’ or ‘a first- rate story- teller’. The wide variety of themes in
Narayan’s stories is paralleled by an equally satisfying variety of techniques.
Keywords: Narrative Techniques, R K Narayan, The Talkative Man