Studia Litterarum

Studia Litterarum

Basic info

  • Publisher: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/06

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Languages and Literature, Literature
  • Publisher's keywords: History of Philology, Comparative Studies, Folklore Studies, Literary History and Theory, Historical and Theoretical Poetics
  • Language of fulltext: russian, French, english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

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  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: , Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '164' articles

Allegory, Poetrie, Rhetoric: On the Notion of Poetic Fiction in France at the End of the 15 th Century

Allegory, Poetrie, Rhetoric: On the Notion of Poetic Fiction in France at the End of the 15 th Century

Authors: Irina K. Staf
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The allegorical dimension of the text in the early French Renaissance culture became, under the influence of Boccaccio’s Genealogy of the Pagan Gods, the main argument in the defense of poetic fiction (fabula). However, the transfer of Boccaccio’s ideas to France was followed by significant reconsideration of his work’s fundamental principles. Whereas in Genealogy, the truth (hidden under the veil of the “fables”) is a series of virtual mythological interpretations that represent a solid macrocosm, French followers of the Italian humanist, from the Augustinian Jacques Legrand, author of the treatise Eloquent Sofia-Wisdom (ca. 1400) to the anonymous author of The Poetic Stories of Olympus (1539), develop a different understanding. Bearing on the tradition of both medieval mythography and the medieval versions of Ovid’s Metamorphosis, they form extensive lists of ancient Gods and characters, interpreting the ancient myth as figurative instruction in the true faith. Interpretation becomes primary to the myth thus moving the myth into the realm of “moral philosophy” and turning it into an exemplum, an instructive example. Such exegesis functionally equates poetic “fables” of the Ancient Greeks and Romans with Biblical plots: from both, a “moral philosopher” or preacher can draw the material he needs. This is how Jacques Legrand understands the essence and the tasks of the science of fiction (poetrie). “Poetrie,” a catalogue of moralized fictional images and plots, separated into loci communes and classified according to the categories of moral philosophy, becomes part of the rhetoric as it penetrates into some treatises on the “second rhetoric,” related to the verse in the national language. By the beginning of the 16th century, the doctrine of the fabula became wholly subordinated by the principle of “decorated speech” and added to a set of rhetorical figures for the usage of the speaker. Poetic fiction acquired a new status: retaining its allegorical-moralizing nature, it ceased to require explicit interpretation. Educated reader became entitled to interpret it without mediation of the mentor or commentator.

Keywords: allegory, fiction, Genealogy of the Pagan Gods, poetrie, moral philosophy, “Moralized Ovid”
The Face of the Other in Emmanuel Levinas and Alexey Uhktomsky

The Face of the Other in Emmanuel Levinas and Alexey Uhktomsky

Authors: Alexey N. Belarev
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The author compares ethical concepts of a Russian physiologist and philosopher Alexey A. Ukhtomsky and a French philosopher Emmanuel Levinas. Both use the word “face” as a philosophical term. The paper examines the “face” as a key image in the work of both authors which helped them understand the meaning of dialogue and social interaction. The fact that the Russian word “litzo” (“face”) has two different meanings (a “person” and a “human face”) was very important for Ukhtomsky. For the better understanding of Levinas, it is necessary to take in account the interaction of Russian, Hebrew, and French languages as part of the linguistic consciousness of this author. Both philosophers considered ethics to be philosophia prima. The encounter with the face of the Other is the central event in the personality development for both Levinas and Ukhtomsky. For Levinas, the study of the face was a way to transcend the limits of phenomenology because the face is not a “common” phenomenon. For Ukhtomsky, the image of the face pointed at the problematic character of sciences. It was part of his search for the non-theoretical knowledge, e. g. knowledge that accounts not only for the universal but also for the individual and is capable of describing not only impersonal structures and objects but also individual and unique events. Both thinkers thus were seeking to reconsider religious tradition in the context of contemporary science and philosophy. Ukhtomsky arrives at the idea of asymmetrical relationship between the “I” and the “Other” independently of Levinas. Whereas Levinas describes the experience of the encounter with the Other as a kind of epiphany, Ukhtomsky calls God “the First and the Ultimate Interlocutor.” The encounter with the Other for both philosophers is, namely, a mundane, everyday analogue of the Revelation.

Keywords: Emmanuel Levinas, Alexey Alexejevich Ukhtomsky, the face, the Other, ethics, interlocutor, Mikhail Bakhtin, phenomenology, anthropology, subject, dialogue
THE FORMS OF PROSAIC SPEECH IN AL-SĪRA BY IBN ISHĀQ — IBN HISHĀM

THE FORMS OF PROSAIC SPEECH IN AL-SĪRA BY IBN ISHĀQ — IBN HISHĀM

Authors: Alexander B. Kudelin
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The present article offers an analysis of forms of prosaic speech, seeing them as an important means for producing the literary/historical narrative of “The Life of the Prophet” (Al-sīra al-Nabawiyya) by Ibn Ishāq (d.150 AH/767 AD) — Ibn Hishām (d. 218 AH/833 AD, or 213 AH/828 AD). The plot-organized narrative is created there through various forms of prosaic speech, both direct and indirect, which prove operative in Al-sīra in shaping formal accounts of events as much as in forming plot-centered storytelling. Apart from the simple instances of direct utterances authored by this or that character, the article considers several examples of complicated modes of prosaic forms appearing in the Ibn Ishāq – Ibn Hishām writing, when a certain direct utterance of the first speaker is reworked, through various combinations of direct and reported speech, resulting in a chain of coherent utterances of another speaker or narrator.

Keywords: Arabic studies, Ibn Ishāq, Ibn Hishām, Al-sīra al-Nabawiyya, Medieval studies, plotstructured narrative, forms of prosaic speech, direct speech, reported speech
The Spirit of Laws and the Debate about Russian Despotism

The Spirit of Laws and the Debate about Russian Despotism

Authors: Ekaterina N. Vasilyeva
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The fate of The Spirit of Laws by Ch.-L. Montesquieu in Russia in the second half of the 18th century is an example of ambiguous reception that the French enlightener and his ideas received at that time prompting both imitation and polemics. The origin of these controversies is in the unfavorable image of Russia that Montesquieu represented as a country of despotism and slavery. The ideas developed in the treatise incited various Russian authors to nourish their own thinking about the country, especially concerning such problems as liberty and equality. The article attempts to trace the emergence of this debate in political literature, including the works by F.-H. Strube de Piermont, Catherine II, and Prince M.M. Shcherbatov. Since the examined texts are interdependent, it allows me to speak of the literary polemics of a kind. It is argued that each author develops her own writing strategy in accordance with her specific position in society and intention. A comparative analysis shows the following tendencies. (1) The book by Strube de Piermont is a typical literary refutation intended to rehabilitate Russia’s reputation compromised by the author of The Spirit of Laws. (2) Prince Shcherbatov uses Montesquieu’s statements about Russia as a reference point for his own deep and original study of the phenomena and processes that existed in Russia. (3) The ambiguous position of Catherine II as both a private person and a monarch is the most vulnerable of the three and forces her to adapt her ideas to this peculiar role.

Keywords: Montesquieu, Russia, despotism, slavery, polemic, Strube de Piermont, Catherine II, Shcherbatov
Rahel Vaenhagen and the Culture of Her Time

Rahel Vaenhagen and the Culture of Her Time

Authors: Julietta L. Chavchanidze
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

This essay examines the personality of Rahel Varnhagen, one of the brightest representatives of the German cultural milieu, owner of a literary salon that brought together prominent authors, artists, philosophers, nobles, and the crème of burgher society in the period between the end of the 18th Century and the 1830s. Rahel stood out among other female owners of literary salons, due to her deep knowledge of contemporary aesthetic trends, their specificity and perspectives, and in this respect, she was a perfect equal to male intellectuals of the time. Her contacts spread beyond the salon as she corresponded with a great number of people both within and outside the country. Rahel’s letters, collected by Varnhagen von Ense, and her diaries reveal outstanding literary gifts. On the example of Rahel’s world and her environment, this article examines the transient decades of European life that signaled the shift in the cultural sensibility as well as the debunking of the Enlightenment social, philosophic, and aesthetic concepts by the generations of Romantics. The diversity of personalities that evoked Rahel’s interest shows the ambiguity of public opinions and tastes reflected in literature. The atmosphere of her salon helps us better understand individual literary figures that either represented certain aesthetic trends or combined the traits of different trends in their work.

Keywords: salon, woman, culture, classics, Goethe, Jena Romanticism, epoch, letter
THE STRUCTURE OF THE FANTÔMAS NOVEL SERIES BY PIERRE SOUVESTRE AND MARCEL ALLAIN AND THE PROBLEM OF SERIALITY IN POPULAR LITERATURE

THE STRUCTURE OF THE FANTÔMAS NOVEL SERIES BY PIERRE SOUVESTRE AND MARCEL ALLAIN AND THE PROBLEM OF SERIALITY IN POPULAR LITERATURE

Authors: Kirill A. Chekalov
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The essay examines the structure of a 32-volume series of Fantômas novels created by Pierre Souvestre and Marcel Allain; it traces the origins and development of the serial genre and generic novelties related to seriality. The latter include a relative autonomy of each story in each volume and interconnection of the volumes via the figure of the criminal “slipping away” from the hands of justice. The study compares poetological techniques of the fabula development and points out specific features of the Belle époque reality as represented through the introduction of recognizable “cultural signs,” variations of everyday incidents, and newspaper chronicle of criminal events. It also analyzes the image of Fantômas and other recurrent characters of the series (such as Juve, Fandor, Hélène, Lady Maud Beltham, etc). The authors examine para-literary features that can be traced in many other different forms such as TV series and graphic novels. They include (1) mythologization of the main character as embodiment of Evil, or a “criminal genius”; (2) confusion of the real and the fictional, verisimilar and extraordinary, horrible and comic based on the variations of literary and journalistic clichés; (3) repetition of plot patterns, (4) attempts to guess and to meet reader’s expectations.

Keywords: serial, novel serial, editorial project, narrative clichés, recurrent characters, paraliterature
ADULT AND HIS OTHER: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDHOOD IN THE AUSTRIAN MODERNIST FICTION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF R.M. RILKE)

ADULT AND HIS OTHER: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDHOOD IN THE AUSTRIAN MODERNIST FICTION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF R.M. RILKE)

Authors: Vera V. Kotelevskaya
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The childhood as the subject of psychology, philosophy, and art is object of intensive study in the 20th century Austrian culture. Childhood is seen as the origin of personhood, its “code” that calls for interpretation. Psychoanalysis of Freud and Rank, fiction of Rilke, Musil, Kafka, Bernhard, Bachmann, and Handke are the landmarks in the development of the Austrian modernist text on childhood. The study of the conceptualization of childhood in the 20th century Austrian fiction being part of the modernist project of the independent personality generating autonomous art is of scholarly relevance. Rainer Maria Rilke imparts a confessional tone to the theme as he develops the neo-romantic idea of childhood as the source of artistic personality. The child is conceptualized as the other of the adult whereas art is conceived to compensate the loss of the former. Experience of self-research is undertaken by Rilke in the novel about a fictional Danish poet Malte Laurids Brigge (Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge / “Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge”, 1910). The author first describes the past of the character, or his “lonely” childhood, and then turns to the historical past of the mankind and evangelical parable from which the narrator draws exemplae as arguments for his juxtaposition of the “mask” and the self. The fragmentariness or dissociation of the adult self becomes partly overcome by means of return to the childhood, a period when the narrator already gains experience of self-loss and self-discovery. Thus, for the modernist artist, the aesthetic project is inseparably interrelated with the “Sisyphean labor” of writing (Albert Camus), loss of the transcendental principles of poetic “labor,” and total experience of despair which, according to Kierkegaard, inspires self-reflection.

Keywords: Austrian literature, autobiographical fiction, modernism, childhood, artist novel, selfhood, Rilke, Kafka, Musil, Bernhard
CHEKHOV’S ETHICAL HERITAGE IN THE CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN MEDICAL HUMANITIES

CHEKHOV’S ETHICAL HERITAGE IN THE CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN MEDICAL HUMANITIES

Authors: Eugenyia M. Butenina
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The paper discusses Chekhovian ethical discourse in American fiction and non-fiction that forms part of an emerging literary canon of medical humanities in the USA. Besides Chekhov’s “medical” stories, special attention is given to his book Sakhalin Island seen as an object of “moral cartography.” The analysis of contemporary medical humanities in the USA shows that Chekhov’s ethical heritage has entered this field at several levels. One is teaching “medical” stories and Sakhalin Island as part of the future doctors’ ethical education. The other is expanding the literary-medical context by including these texts in comparative studies and anthologies. Finally, there is the overall level of developing the method of literary “diagnostic” bearing on Chekhov’s ethical heritage that is important for the study of both fiction and non-fiction authored by doctors-writers.

Keywords: A. Chekhov, ethics, medical humanities, LitMed, J. McConkey, W. Percy
SHADOW OF IMANA: TRAVELS IN THE HEART OF RWANDA BY VÉRONIQUE TADJO AS THE FIRST TRAVELOGUE IN THE FRANCOPHONE AFRICAN LITERATURES

SHADOW OF IMANA: TRAVELS IN THE HEART OF RWANDA BY VÉRONIQUE TADJO AS THE FIRST TRAVELOGUE IN THE FRANCOPHONE AFRICAN LITERATURES

Authors: Nina D. Lyakhovskaya
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

This essay focuses on the genre of travelogue that was new to the African Francophone literatures. The analysis of the novel In the Shadow of Imana: Travels in the Heart of Rwanda (2000) by the Ivorian writer Véronique Tadjo is a standpoint of my polemics with the concept of travelogue and its distinctive features defined by Maiga Abubakarom Abdulvakhidu in his PhD dissertation Africa in French and Russian Travelogues (A. Gide and N. Gumilev) (2016). The author of the dissertation considers travelogues to be a “composite” form. One part is documentary-biographical with the obligatory chronotope of the way, stops, and personal impressions of the travelers (Gide’s travel notes about his travels to Tunisia, Sahara, Congo, lake Chad, Egyptian Diaries, etc.; Gumilev’s travel notes about Abyssinia, African Diaries, and letters). The second part is fictional (Gide’s prose poem “The Fruits of the Earth” and his novel Immoralist; Gumilev’s tales and poems from his turn-of-the-century collections such as The Tent, The Quiver, and The Fire). Tadjo’s book, in contrast to these travelogues, represents a solid form that combines documentary and biographical prose (containing the chronotope of the way and stops in the places of the tragic death of tutsi, the victims of the hutu genocide in 1994) with fiction (mini-novellas with fictional characters). Maiga claims that the latter is never neutral and is usually structured as a comparison of “one’s own” and the “other” culture. Moreover, the representative of “one’s own” culture is usually also the representative of the normal strand. In Maiga’s concept, however, an essential property of travelogues such as personal motivation of the travelogue author is marginalized. This property defines a motif that gives its solid form to the travelogue. In Tadjo’s travelogue, this is compassion for the genocide victims in Rwanda and the author’s indignation with the indifference of the international community and the UN. This humanistic motif features psychologic aspects of the narrator as the author’s strongest stylistic achievement.

Keywords: travelogue, hybrid form, definitions of style, motivation, chronotope, documentary-biographical prose, fiction, short stories
Оn a Poem by Johann Gottfried Gregory

Оn a Poem by Johann Gottfried Gregory

Authors: Marianna V. Kaplun
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines a little known and understudied Stuttgart poem that belongs to Johann Gottfried Gregory, Russian author of the German origin, author of the first play for the Russian court theatre and a minister of the Lutheran Church in Moscow. In 1667, while being on the diplomatic mission to Germany, Gregory leaves the autograph of the poem devoted to Russian life in the “album amicorum” of his friend, the owner of the hotel in Stuttgart Johann Allgayr. The text of the poem in German was first published by Nikolai Petrovich Likhachev in his book Friendly Aliens in the 18th century Russia (1898). This article, for the first time, endeavors to reconstruct the history of the poem and show the evolution of Gregory’s literary style in the first phase of his work that remains obscure. The first part of the poem describes the life of the Russian people and bears on the main “encyclopedic” work of the 17th century Russia, Description of the Journey to Muscovy written by Gregory’s contemporary, a German traveler, geographer and historian Adam Olearius. The second part of the poem is a praise to the Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich, a genre that will be found in all Gregory’s plays written for the Russian theatre and will become integral part of the Russian court ceremonial in the last decades of the 17th century. The poem was written under the influence of the 17th century Baroque German poetry as represented in the work of Paul Fleming. Besides, Gregory’s Stuttgart poem is an authentic document of its time that reflects major cultural, religious, and historical events of the 17th century, the life of the German Quarter in Moscow, and the foreigner’s vision of Muscovy under the reign of the Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich.

Keywords: album-autograph, Russian diplomatic mission, Russian-German poetry of the 17th century, Russia court drama, royal authority, Baroque poetry, German Quarter
GOGOL AND THE WESTERN SLAVOPHILIA IN CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE

GOGOL AND THE WESTERN SLAVOPHILIA IN CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE

Authors: Igor A. Vinogradov
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The essay examines Gogol’s heritage from a new and somewhat “unusual” perspective: the writer is seen as one of the main Russian ideologists of the Slavic unity. Gogol’s views are therefore placed in the context of different Slavophilic trends. The question that this study addresses is only seemingly marginal; as the research has revealed, the polemics between Gogol and the representatives of the Western branch of Slavophilism is central to the work of the former. The essay analyzes Gogol’s views against the background of various ideas about the unity of the Slavs of the “Moscow” and Polish Slavophilic groups, in comparison with “Ukrainophile” views of Gogol’s countryman O.M. Bodiansky, and in their relation to the initiatives of the Minister of Public Education S.S. Uvarov who prescribed the study of the history and literature of the Slavic peoples at universities in 1835. The essay focuses on the well-know “dissident case” (delo o volnodumstve) that affected Gogol already as a student at Nezhinskaya gymnasium in the 1820s. It also covers such subjects as: Gogol’s communication with Polish emigrants, participants of the Polish uprising (1830–1831), when he was abroad in 1836–1837; Mickiewicz’s Parisian lectures in Collège de France in 1840–1844; the history of the Ukrainian-Slavic Society in 1846–1847; and the consequences of the publication of the book About the Russian State by Giles Fletcher, British ambassador to Russia in the 16th century. It also pays attention to the origins of the Polish ideological doctrine concerning the so-called “turanism” of the Russians. Thus, the article discusses the reflection of various Slavic interests and views in Gogol’s fiction and essays, and in his correspondence with friends and acquaintances, up until the last years of his life. An extensive bibliography on the subject is also provided.

Keywords: Gogol, biography, literary work, ideology, slavophilia, interpretation, hermeneutics, heritage
AKHMATOVA’S “LEONARDESCHI”: A COMMENTARY ON THE PICTORIAL REALITY

AKHMATOVA’S “LEONARDESCHI”: A COMMENTARY ON THE PICTORIAL REALITY

Authors: Alexander V. Markov
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

This article explores why N. Nedobrovo mentioned Il Sodoma (Giovanni-Antonio Bazzi) among the artists of da Vinci School in her poem that was of particular importance to Anna Akhmatova. The referenced studies by Merezhkovsky, Freud, and Muratov, explain the convergence of Sodoma’s art with the work of Leonardo da Vinci. The author argues, however, that the real reason of this convergence was the joke narrative of Vasari about Il Sodoma that was reinterpreted by the 20th century authors in the spirit of “Romantic irony.” Placing “Romantic irony” in the context of the conversation about painting as the mirror of the world influenced Nedobrovo and Akhmatova and shaped their understanding of existence in terms of the “looking-glass.” Thus, the theme of the mirror in Akhmatova’s poetry, dominant in her poetic world, not only can be explained by autobiographical motives but also related to the mirror topoi in painting and Vasari’s story about Sodoma as the artist who was both serious and entertaining and building his own self-image on self-parody. This allows us attenuate the Doppelgänger motif in Akhmatova’s poetry.

Keywords: Akhmatova, Nedobrovo, leonardeschi, images of painting in poetry, poetic space
The Prose of Anastasia I. Tsvetaeva: Autobiographical Mythmaking

The Prose of Anastasia I. Tsvetaeva: Autobiographical Mythmaking

Authors: Ekaterina A. Esenina
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

Anastasia Tsvetayeva’s literary work can be largely defined as autobiographical. Her first pen probe, “Royal reflections,” is a philosophical essay where the author represents herself as a “theomachist” and the debunker of all moral values. Later, Tsvetaeva ventured into the genre of autobiographical novel, yet her novel may be called “autobiographical” only with some reservations. On the one hand, this work reflects real facts of the author’s life. On the other, the narrator, at some points, deliberately departs from truth, obscures and alters the facts, pursuing specific aims. The elements of autobiographical mythmaking may be found in the Memoirs of Anastasia Tsvetayeva that would be worthwhile to compare with the autobiographical prose of her elder sister Marina.

Keywords: autobiography, memoirs, Anastasia Tsvetayeva, Marina Tsvetaeva, mythmaking, biography, autobiographical novel
Re-reading Vsevolod Ivanov’s Story “The Armored Train 14-69” Against Siberian Periodicals (1919): The historical comment of the Russian allies in the Civil War

Re-reading Vsevolod Ivanov’s Story “The Armored Train 14-69” Against Siberian Periodicals (1919): The historical comment of the Russian allies in the Civil War

Authors: Elena A. Papkova
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The essay discusses the role that the allied powers — United States, France, Britain, and Japan — played in the development and in the collapse of the Admiral A.V. Kolchak’s anti-Bolshevik Russian government between 1918 and 1920. The discussion is based on the material of the hitherto unknown newspaper publications by Vsevolod Ivanov issued in 1919 by a military newspaper Vpered (Forward) and his literary works. The latter include his classic story about the Civil War entitled “The Armored Train 14-69” (1921), the homonymous plays (1927), and the screenplay (1963). For the first time, the article closely examines Ivanov’s cooperation with the newspaper Forward. The newspaper’s editor, Colonel V.G. Yanchevetsky, supported the government in major political questions. Ivanov’s articles “Bonds of friendship” (1919. September 26) and “‘Go’ and ‘Captain’” (1919. October 16) represent polar views on the role that the allies of the Russian government played in the Civil War. The first article underlines the importance of friendly relations with the allies that emerged during the First World War and that developed during the years of struggle against the “Bolshevik-German armies.” Ivanov’s second article, a response to the events in Vladivostok in the Fall 1919 — particularly, to the secret support of the anti-government conspiracy of the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Bolsheviks on behalf of the allied forces — calls for the necessity to concentrate Russia’s forces and to strengthen Russia’s place in the international arena. The present article shows how Ivanov’s position about the allies developed under the 1919 Siberian circumstances, was reflected in his literary work. For example, it analyzes a plot line associated with the treacherous behavior of the Japanese lieutenant Tanako Muzzi that first appeared in the “The Armored Train 14-69” and then got developed in the homonymous play.

Keywords: “The Armored Train 14-69” by Vsevolod Ivanov, new materials, military newspaper Forward, political articles, the role of the “allies” in the Civil War

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