Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences

Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Sjournals
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Sjournals
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/Feb/20

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biological Sciences, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Genetics, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Plant Sciences, Ecology
  • Publisher's keywords: Biological Sciences, Ecology, Microbiology
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 3 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes, 100 EUR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2012
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '80' articles

Genetic parameter estimation and model selection for hot carcass weight in matebele goat

Genetic parameter estimation and model selection for hot carcass weight in matebele goat

Authors: N. Assan| Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(53 downloads)
Abstract

Genetic parameter estimation for simple carcass traits has been confined to the improved goat breeds worldwide unlike in the unimproved breeds in developing countries where goats are numerous. Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance between additive direct and maternal effects were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting five animal models from 2341 ( 1359 males; 982 females) hot carcass weight pedigree records collected over a period of 13 years (1984- 1997) of indigenous Matebele goat of Zimbabwe. All investigated models included a random direct genetic effect, but different combinations of random maternal genetic and permanent environmental maternal effects as well as direct-maternal genetic covariance. The analytical models included fixed effects of sex, age at slaughter and year of slaughter. The direct heritability (h2a) ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 when the maternal genetic effects were included in the model, whereas h2a estimate was 0.26 when maternal effects were excluded. The maternal heritability (h2m) was 0.00 when only maternal genetic effects were included in the model and were 0.05 and 0.10 when the permanent environmental effect of the dam was added. The permanent environmental effect of the dam was negligible. A positive covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects (σ2am ) was observed when maternal genetic effects and permanent environmental maternal effects were accounted for in the model. A simple animal model with direct additive genetic effects as the only random effects other than the residuals was the best model for genetic evaluation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele goat.

Keywords: Variance components, Animal model, Hot carcass weight, Indigenous matebele goat
Survey for incidence and severity of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in different districts of Marathwada region

Survey for incidence and severity of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in different districts of Marathwada region

Authors: G.P. Jagtap*| Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, M.K.V., Parbhani – 431 402 (MS), A.M. Jangam| Department of Plant Pathology, Coll...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(44 downloads)
Abstract

An extensive roving survey was conducted in different districts of Marathwada region of Maharashtra State to isolate the pathogen associated with the bacterial blight disease of cotton. In all 76 cotton fields were surveyed and average disease incidence (PI) to the tune of 51.12 per cent has been observed. Highest disease incidence noticed in Parbhani district (67%) followed by Hingoli (63%), Nanded (58%) and Latur (54%). The lowest disease incidence noticed in Jalna district (36%). Highest disease severity noticed in Parbhani district followed by Hingoli, Latur, Nanded and Aurangabad.

Keywords: Survey, Bacterial blight, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv., malvacearum
Effects of aqueous crude leaf extract of senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of male sprague dawley rats

Effects of aqueous crude leaf extract of senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of male sprague dawley rats

Authors: A.O. Muhammed| Histopathology Unit, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, D.A. Adekomi*| Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Me...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 1
(45 downloads)
Abstract

Whenever any plant and/or herb is ingested, the body system interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins such may contain, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign substance into useful components. This study was to evaluate the effects of oral consumption of aqueous leaf extract of Senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of Sprague Dawley rats as a marker of toxicity. Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 100-158 g were used (4-6 weeks old). They were divided into 2 groups. The rats in the treatment group A received 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae for thirty days (30d). Histological observation of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testes revealed no significant abnormal alterations. The rats in the control group B received equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) also for 30d and no histopathological abnormalities were seen in the frontal cortex, kidney, liver, and testes of the rats. Aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae has no deleterious effects on the histological profile of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testis of the rats.

Keywords: Senecio biafrae, Histopathological, Leaf extract, Phosphate buffered saline
Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica): reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica): reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

Authors: O.J. Akinjogunla*| Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, A.T. Odeyemi| Department of M...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(43 downloads)
Abstract

Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8%) were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2%) were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8%) were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2%) were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%), Amoxicillin (40.3%), Streptomycin (36.1%), Tetracycline (36.0%), Erythromycin (35.5%), Gentamicin (34.0%), Penicillin (34.6%), Cephalothin (27.8%), Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%), Ciprofloxacin (18.4%) and Levofloxacin (17.7%). Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8%) multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2%) were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7%) were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

Keywords: Cockroaches, Periplaneta Americana, Blattella germanica, Antibiotics, Bacteria, Gut
Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

Authors: A.A. Tijani*| Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria, A.D. Adedayo| Department of Anatomy, Faculty...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(49 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B). The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E) processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

Keywords: Cannabis sativ, Visual system, Occipital cortex, Neurohistochemical study
Comparative morphologic and morphometric studies on the lower respiratory tract of adult Japanese quail (coturnix japonica) and pigeon (columbia livia)

Comparative morphologic and morphometric studies on the lower respiratory tract of adult Japanese quail (coturnix japonica) and pigeon (columbia livia)

Authors: S.A. Hena*| Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, M.L. Sonfada| Department o...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(41 downloads)
Abstract

This study was concerned with the comparative evaluation of the morphologic and morphometric parameters of the lower respiratory tract of Japanese quail and that of pigeon. In the course of this work twenty birds (ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails) of both sexes were purchased from a poultry market in Sokoto metroplis, Sokoto, Nigeria and used. It was observed in this study that the lower respiratory tract extended from the caudal part of the oral cavity (around the larynx) down to the neck and to the thoracic region. The lower respiratory tract structures were the trachea (including the syrinx), the bronchus and the lungs. In the study, all the birds used were adults with mean body weight of 159.51±8.19g and 265.78±4.88g for the Japanese quail and pigeon respectively, this was considered extremely significant (P<0.05). The tracheal weight, length and diameter in the quail were 0.55±0.06g, 7.61±0.37cm and 0.47±0.04 cm respectively, while the pigeon had 0.79±0.11g, 8.13±1.10 cm and 0.51±0.06 cm as corresponding values respectively. The morphometry of other respiratory apparatuses were obtained and presented. In both subjects the lungs were small, compact and non-expandable and were both found to be bright red in color and impregnated within the rib cage with contacts on their dorsal surfaces by the thoracic vertebrae in such a way that they delineated vertebral impression on the lung surfaces which resulted in a division of the lungs into parts. The trachea was observed in both quail and pigeon to lie ventral to the esophagus along the length of the neck. There were complete tracheal rings comprising the windpipe and not C-shaped as in mammal, this probably is to provide better protection for the bird’s trachea which needs to move freely subcutaneously due to the long cervical region and the ability of the bird to twist the neck through a wide range of motion. Both right and left bronchus were observed to have originated from the trachea in both species entering the left and right lobes of the lungs respectively. These informations could be useful in comparative anatomy, pharmacological and toxicological investigations, and as well as aiding in the understanding of the biology of these two bird types used in this study.

Keywords: Morphology, Morphometry, lower respiratory tract
Soil-vegetation relationship in fresh water swamp forest

Soil-vegetation relationship in fresh water swamp forest

Authors: R.M. Ubom*| Department of Botany and Ecological studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, F.O. Ogbemudia| Department of Botany and Ec...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(42 downloads)
Abstract

Soil and vegetation relationships were studied in freshwater swamp forest in Ikot Umiang Ede in Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The systematic sampling method was used to sample the vegetation in 10 x 10m quadrats. Plants were identified to species level. Frequency, density, height, basal area and crown cover were determined for each species. In each quadrat two soil samples were taken and then bulked into a composite sample. A total of 40 soil samples were collected. Soil physiochemical properties were analysed in the Soil Science Laboratory of University of Uyo, Uyo. The results showed that Elaeis guineensis was the dominant species with 40% frequency of occurrence, while 11 plant species had the least occurrence of 5% frequency. They are Baphia nitida, Cyrtosperma senegalensis, Homalium letestui, Marantochloa cuspidata, Nauclea diderrichii, Poga oleosa, Palisota hirsuta, Smilax anceps and Smilax kranssiana. Bambusa vulgaris, had the highest density of 760 ± 62.8 stem /ha while Palisota hirsuta had the least density of 2.15 ± 0.00 stems/ha. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides was the tallest plant with a height of 21.00±0.00m while Poga oleosa and Palisota hirsuta were the shortest species with a height of 0.01 ± 0.00m each. The soil was acidic (5.25 ± 0.11). Organic carbon, total nitrogen and potassium were low with mean values of 4.57 ± 0.25cmol/kg, 0.39 ± 0.02cmol/kg and 0.29 +0.00cmol/kg respectively. Exchangeable cations were low. Among the heavy metals, Fe had the highest mean value of 184.0 ± 52.54mg/kg. The soil had a high sand content (65.45 ±00.93%) and low silt and clay contents 23.25 ± 0.49 and 11.77±0.92%, respectively. Linear regression shows that, the relationship between soil parameters and plants density, height, crown cover and basal area were positive; indicating that soil parameters forms part of constellation of factors determining the existence of plants in the freshwater swamp.

Keywords: Soil, Fresh water swamp forest, Vegetation, Akwa Ibom
Heamolytic activities, deoxyribonuclease production and in-vitro flouroquinolones susceptibility profile of aerobic gram positive cocci associated with acne vulgaris

Heamolytic activities, deoxyribonuclease production and in-vitro flouroquinolones susceptibility profile of aerobic gram positive cocci associated with acne vulgaris

Authors: O.J. Akinjogunla*| Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, O.I. Medo| Departmen...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(43 downloads)
Abstract

Bacteriological investigations were carried out on forty–six (46) swabbed samples from the pustular and nodulocystic skin lesions of undergraduate students with acne vulgaris using standard bacteriological methods. The fluoroquinolones susceptibility profiles, heamolytic activities, deoxyribonuclease production were determined using Kirby –Bauer disc diffusion methods, Columbia Blood Agar (CBA) and Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) agar, respectively. The results showed that all the 46 clinical samples showed positive growth, with 24 (52.2%) having single bacterium isolated. Co-infection with two bacterial species was seen in 24 (28.3%), while polybacterial growth was present in 9 (19.6%) of the samples. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent aerobic Gram positive cocci associated with acne vulgaris with 32 (42.1%) occurrences, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis 26 (34.2%) and Micrococcus spp 18 (23.9%). Sixteen of the isolates produced α – haemolysin, 25 (32.9%) produced β – haemolysin and 35 (46.1%) produced no haemolysin (γ-haemolysis). Of the 16 α – haemolysin producers, Staphylococcus aureus produced the highest 9 (56.3%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis 5 (31.3%) and Micrococcus spp 2(12.5%). Of the seventy – six aerobic Gram positive cocci isolated only 33 (43.4) were DNase producers, while 43 (56.6) were non-DNase producers. Staphylococcus aureus were highly sensitive to Moxifloxacin, while 26 (81.3%) were sensitive to Lomefloxacin and Gatifloxacin. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp were highly sensitive to Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Lomefloxacin and Levofloxacin. The results also showed that 17 (65.4%) and 13 (50.0%) of Staphylococcus epidermidis were sensitive to Pefloxacin and Nalidixic, respectively. Consequently, this study has shown that fluoroquinolones could be drugs of choice to administer to patients with acne vulgaris.

Keywords: Acne vulgaris, Fluoroquinolones, Deoxyribonuclease, Heamolysis, Susceptibility
Floristics and structure of fallow vegetation

Floristics and structure of fallow vegetation

Authors: R.M. Ubom| Department of Botany and Ecological studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, F.O. Ogbemudia| Department of Botany and Eco...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(42 downloads)
Abstract

Vegetation-environment (soil) was studied in fallow plots in Uyo, ranging from 0-year-old to 6-year-old. Systematic sampling method was used to sample both vegetation and soil. The parameters determined for vegetation included; Height, Frequency, Basal area and Crown cover for all species. The soil physical and chemical properties were also determined. Results obtained showed that there were eight (8) plant species in the 0-year old plot, 12 species in the 2-year old plot, 20 species of plants in 4-year old plot and 23 species of plants in the 6-year old plot. The soils were acidic across the years of fallow, but most acidic in 6-year old plot. Organic carbon was high in 4-year old plot, exchangeable cations decreased along the fallow, available phosphorus increased in 0, 2 and 4 year old and decreased in 6-year old plot. The percentage of sand increased as years of fallow increased. The texture of the soil in all the plots was loamy sand. Correlation co-efficient of soil parameters showed that magnesium, potassium, zinc, irons, silt, organic carbon, calcium, exchangeable acidity, total nitrogen, base saturation influenced the vegetation parameters. The vegetation parameters were significant at P = 0.05.

Keywords: Floristics, Vegetation-environment, Soil, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Potassium
Some of the effects of aqueous crude seed extract of datura stramonium on the histology of the frontal cortex and hippocampus of sprague dawley rats

Some of the effects of aqueous crude seed extract of datura stramonium on the histology of the frontal cortex and hippocampus of sprague dawley rats

Authors: A.D. Adedayo*| Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, T.A. Adekilekun| Department of Anatomy...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 2
(43 downloads)
Abstract

This study was carried out in order to investigate some of the effects of aqueous seed extract of Datura stramonium on the histology of the frontal cortex and hippocampus of Sprague Dawley rats as marker of toxicity. 16 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B). The rats in group B served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg bwt of the aqueous seed extract of D. stramonium while the animals in group A which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The duration of administration was for fourteen days (14d). The rats were sacrificed using cervical decapacitation 3hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 24 hours after fixation, the frontal cortices and the hippocampi were excised from the fixed brains and were processed for routine histological study using Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the frontal cortices and hippocampi of the rats. These findings provide evidence that suggest that the oral administration of aqueous seed extract of D. stramonium confers deleterious effects on the frontal cortices and hippocampi of Sprague Dawley rats.

Keywords: Datura stramonium, Frontal cortex, Hippocampus, 10% formol calcium, Cervical decapacitation
Histopathological study on the effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extracts of cymbopogon citratus on the frontal cortex of male sprague dawley rats

Histopathological study on the effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extracts of cymbopogon citratus on the frontal cortex of male sprague dawley rats

Authors: D.A. Adekomi*| Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria., A...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 3
(46 downloads)
Abstract

This investigation was to evaluate the histopathological effects of oral consumption of the aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus on the frontal cortex of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ten male SD rats weighing between 150-230g were used. The rats were randomly assigned into two groups designated as groups A and B. Group A served as the control group while group B was the treatment. 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous leaf extract of C. citratus was administered once daily for 14 consecutive days (14d) orally through a sterilized orogastric tube, while the control rats received equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration. The frontal cortices were excised, fixed in 10% formol calcium for 18 hours and were processed for routine light microscopic study using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method. The histological findings revealed that the extract treated sections showed cytoarchitectural distortions ranging from neuronal degeneration, distortion, vacuolations and evidence of necrotic bodies while the sections from the rats in group B conform to normal histological profile. These findings suggest a deleterious and toxic effects of aqueous leaf extract of C. citratus on the frontal cortex of SD rats.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citrates, Cytoarchitecture, Leaf extract, Light microscopic, Oral consumption, Phosphate buffered saline
Common wild fruits from Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria and nutritional analyses of landolphia membranacea (Stapf) pichon

Common wild fruits from Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria and nutritional analyses of landolphia membranacea (Stapf) pichon

Authors: M.E. Bassey| Department of Botany and Ecological Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 4
(46 downloads)
Abstract

Fruits from Maesobotrya barteri, Carpolobia lutea, Dialium guineense, Hemandradenia mannii, Uvaria chamae, Cola millenii, C. heterophylla, Melastomastrum capitatum, Landolphia membranacea are reported as being commonly consumed in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria even though they are harvested only in the wild. These all are available in the planting season when the staples are not really available. Phytochemical screening of the fruits of L. membranacea showed a strong presence of flavonoids , cardiac glycosides and tannins, trace quantities of saponins and complete absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones and cyanogenic glycosides. Proximate analyses revealed moisture content of 75.5%, 8.74% of protein, 5.33% of ash, 8.33% of crude fibre, 13.95% of crude fat and 65.55% of carbohydrate. The mineral content showed that potassium was 2448.00mg/kg-1, sodium was 100.00mg/kg-1, magnesium was 240.00mg/kg-1, calcium was 240.00mg/kg-1, phosphorous was 2500.00mg/kg-1 and iron was 129.oomg/kg-1. The anti-nutrient composition was phytic acid (43.36mg/100g), oxalic acid (580.80mg/100g) and tannins (2.93mg/100g). This fruit is recommended for consumption, conservation and possibly further development in size and yield.

Keywords: Wild fruits, Nutrition, Akwa Ibom state, Conservation, Landolphia.
In vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on uro-pathogens

In vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on uro-pathogens

Authors: O.J. Akinjogunla*| Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State., D.N. Bala| Department of Pha...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 4
(45 downloads)
Abstract

The phytochemistry and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on the Gram positive (Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus; Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp.; Serratia marcescens; Klebsiella sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from mid stream urine were carried out using standard microbiological and disc diffusion techniques. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts of P. amarus revealed the presence of phyto-constituents such as alkaloids (+++), tannins (+++), saponins (++), flavonoids (++), cardiac glycoside (+), free anthraquinones (++), deoxy-Sugar test (+) and phlobatanins (+), while combined anthraquinones was not detected. The results showed that P. amarus extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine samples. Highest mean zones of inhibition (14.3+1.0 mm) and activity index (0.97) were obtained at 40.0mgml-1 among the Gram positive bacteria, while the highest mean zones of inhibition (14.5 + 0.5mm) and activity index (1.12) at 40.0mgml-1 were obtained among the Gram negative. The results also showed that Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp (CS03) was not sensitive to both 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus and alkaloidal fractions. Among the Gram negative, Enterobacter sp (ES03) was not sensitive to 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus, alkaloidal fractions and Streptomycin. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic leaf extracts and the alkaloids for developing synthetic drugs against uro-pathogens.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Uro-pathogens, Alkaloids, Urine, Antibacterial
Use of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in Red Sokoto goats

Use of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in Red Sokoto goats

Authors: B.O. Omontese*| Department of Theriogenology and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria., P.I. Rekwot| Ar...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 5
(50 downloads)
Abstract

The present study was conducted to diagnose pregnancy 30 days following estrus synchronization and natural mating using transabdominal ultrasonography and to compare the traditional use of non return rates of estrus with pregnancy diagnosis by day 30 using transabdominal ultrasonography in “Red Sokoto goats” of Nigeria. Forty nine (n=49) Red Sokoto does were treated with fluorogestone acetate sponges (FGA-30) for 15 days. At the end of progestagen treatment, does received i.m 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) concurrent with progestagen removal. Does were mated naturally using proven sexually active bucks in the ratio 1 buck to 10 does. Measurement of non-return rates of estrus was evaluated 21 to 30 days following estrus and natural mating. Pregnancy rate was determined on day 30 following estrus and natural mating using a real time B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a 3.5 MHz probe. Non return rate of estrus (conception) was compared with pregnancy rate using ultrasonography. Conception rate by measurement of non return rate of estrus by day 30 was 87.7 % (43/49). An 85.7 % (42/49) pregnancy rate was obtained at day 30 of gestation using ultrasonography. Conceptus in pregnancy fluid was visible in 100% cases between 30 and 35 days of gestation. From the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography in Red Sokoto goats of Nigeria.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Pregnancy diagnosis, Conception, Red Sokoto
Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles by endophytic bacterium inhabiting Coffee arabica L.

Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles by endophytic bacterium inhabiting Coffee arabica L.

Authors: S. Baker*| Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnatak...
Year: 2012, Volume: 1, Number: 5
(42 downloads)
Abstract

The interface between endophytes and nanomaterials is a relatively new and unexplored area the present study evaluates screening of bacterial endophytes from surfaced sterilized leaf and stem segments of agro economical plant Coffee arabica L. towards synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antimicrobial metabolites. Among thirty two endophytes isolated nine isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity among which one bacterium was capable of extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles upon evaluation of supernatant with 1 mM of silver nitrate, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles were assessed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and the bacterium was capable of secreting antimicrobial secondary metabolites upon crude ethyl acetate extract evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of both gram positive and gram negative as well as phytopathogenic fungi. Partial characterization was carried out via bioautographic technique with Rf value 0.3 and 0.6 exhibiting antimicrobial activity against MRSA strain. Further studies in this area will be promising enough for molecular characterization of endophytic bacterium and chemical profiling of antimicrobial metabolites at the same time physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles will be valuable to reveal the size and shape.

Keywords: Endophytes, Silver nanoparticles antimicrobial, Metabolites

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