Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics

Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics

Basic info

  • Publisher: Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/09

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Biomedicine, Anatomy, Pharmacology, Physiology
  • Publisher's keywords: Biomedicine, Physiology, Anotomy, Pharmacology
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 1000 INR
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2013
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '285' articles

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

Authors: Harish Rathi*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020., Prof. Satyanand Tyag...
( 40 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the sustained release matrix tablet of Tizanidine hydrochloride. Tizanidine hydrochloride tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using different polymers like propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K 100, ethyl cellulose and gaur gum alone or in combinations. Prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity and dissolution studies. % Cumulative drug release from all the prepared formulations were found to be in following order: F4 > F1 > F5 > F2 > F5 > F3. The result indicated that formulation (F4) containing mixture of two polymers HPMC K 100 and ethyl cellulose showed the release profile for 14 hours and high drug content.

Keywords: Tizanidine hydrochloride, HPMC, ethyl cellulose, Sustain release, Matrix tablet
COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INCLUSION COMPLEX WITH HYDROXYPROPYL-β-CYCLODEXTRIN AND NANOCRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG ALBENDAZOLE

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INCLUSION COMPLEX WITH HYDROXYPROPYL-β-CYCLODEXTRIN AND NANOCRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG ALBENDAZOLE

Authors: Chaudhari Bharat*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, India., Asija Rajesh1| Department of Pharm...
( 39 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of the present work was to enhance solubility and dissolution rate of albendazole a class II drug by two different techniques and compare them for improved drug delivery study. These techniques are inclusion complex of albendazole with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β -CD) and converting drug into nanocrystal by anti solvent precipitation technique in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizer. HP-β-CD molecules are cone-shaped with hydrophobic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface and are capable of forming inclusion complexes with drug by taking up a whole drug molecule or some hydrophobic part of it, into the cavity and there by enhance the drug dissolution and solubility. Nanocrystals are new carrier free colloidal drug delivery system with nano sized particles below 1000 nm, and considered as a great drug delivery technique to enhance the drug dissolution and solubility. In the present work the drug inclusion complex with HP-β -CD were prepared by kneading technique with different ratios of HP-β-CD. All formulations showed marked improvement in dissolution and solubility compared to pure drug. Drug nanocrystals were prepared by anti solvent precipitation technique. Different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as stabilizers were evaluated. All formulations were in the nano size and showed marked improvement in dissolution and solubility compared to pure drug of micron size. Finally it was concluded that formulating poorly soluble drugs in the form of nanocrystals would be a promising approach in delivery of class II drugs by oral route in a simple and effective way.

Keywords: Albendazole, Solubility enhancement, Nanocrystals, Cyclodextrin, Inclusion complex
EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION OF α -AMYRIN ACETATE FROM THE FRUITS OF FICUS RACEMOSA

EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION OF α -AMYRIN ACETATE FROM THE FRUITS OF FICUS RACEMOSA

Authors: Preeti Rawat| Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Singhania University, Jhujhunu-333515, Rajasthan, India., Pinki Rawat| Department of Pharmaceutic...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Ficus racemosa Linn belongs to the family Moraceae is popular in indigenous system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy. It has been known to posses diverse pharmacological activities. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as bark, root, leaves, fruits and latex are used in diarrhea, dysentery, piles, wound healing, skin disorders, diabetes, ulcers, menorrhagia, visceral obstructions, bilious affections, as a hypoglycemic, antiperiodic, anti-hemorrhagic, carminative, astringent, antioxidant and also as anticancer agents. The research describes a new method for the extraction and isolation of α-Amyrin Acetate from the fruits of Ficus racemosa. This would be of immense value in the study and preparation of α-Amyrin Acetate derivatives and analogs.

Keywords: α-Amyrin Acetate, Cluster Fig Tree, Ficus racemosa, Gular Fig, Moraceae
AWARENESS REGARDING FEMALE BREAST CANCER IN KANGRA REGION OF HIMACHAL PRADESH.

AWARENESS REGARDING FEMALE BREAST CANCER IN KANGRA REGION OF HIMACHAL PRADESH.

Authors: Divya Bharti*| Department of life sciences, Manav Bharti University, Solan (H.P.) 173229, Indra Pathania| Department of Zoology, Manav Bharti Universi...
( 69 downloads)
Abstract

Breast cancer, a critical health problem, is considered to be a progressive disease with a poor prognosis if detected late. Public education about the disease plays a vital role in early detection and subsequent improvements in prognosis. The present study assesses the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of breast cancer among female in Kangra Region of Himachal Pradesh.METHODS: The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer including incidence, early Warning signs, risk factors, screening, early detection measures and sources of information was Evaluated among female in Grace School Of Nursing Kangra (students and staff members), and randomly selected different areas of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, from August 1 to 31, 2012. A self-structured validated questionnaire that contained 10 itemized questions about breast cancer was randomly distributed to the participants. Respondent’s levels of knowledge were determined.RESULTS: Of 121 females, 106 (88%) were available for final analysis with a mean age of 21 years (age range: 18 to 55 years). Fifty nine (55%) respondents were single and ninety four (88%) had no family history of breast cancer. Their knowledge about the incidence of the disease was poor; only 11% replied correctly. A total of forty nine (46.2%) respondents mentioned swelling in the skin/axilla while twenty seven (25.5%) suggested skin changes as early warning signs of breast cancer. None of the participants expressed knowledge about all established risk factors of the disease. Sixty two (58.4%) did not know the proper way to perform a breast self-examination and forty two (39.6%) had never performed this test. Additionally, sixty seven (63.2%) knew that mammography was a screening tool for breast cancer. Sources of information about the disease were: television and radio (52, 49%), printed material in journals and newspapers (16, 15%) and family physicians (9, 8.5%).CONCLUSION: This study revealed that respondents showed deficient knowledge about key Issues concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Majority of the respondents had heard of breast cancer but the knowledge and understanding of the disease was low .Measures need to be taken to spread awareness about this disease in females so that they can play a vital role in early detection of this disease. It also revealed that health workers were not the main source of information in the region, thereby posing a challenge for community health services to provide basic required information about breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Breast cancer awareness, Breast self-examination
SERUM LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN CARDIOVASCULAR PATIENTS IN SOLAN

SERUM LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN CARDIOVASCULAR PATIENTS IN SOLAN

Authors: Garima Bharti *| Department of life sciences, Manav Bharti University, Solan (H.P.) 173229, Indra Pathania| Department of Zoology, Manav Bharti Univer...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue, nationally and internationally. It is increasing in urban Indian population and lipid abnormalities are important risk factors. There are many risk factors for cardiovascular diseases that lead to enhanced risk of developing CVD. However, the main CVD risk factors are smoking, diet, obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty three males and thirty seven females were included in the study with age range of 20 to >69 years. Patients were taken randomly from the outpatient department of hospital. Levels of serum triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein,

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, low-density lipoprotein
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL GEL OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE ALONG WITH NEEM OIL, TULSI OIL AND OLEIC ACID AS PENETRATION ENHANCERS

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL GEL OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE ALONG WITH NEEM OIL, TULSI OIL AND OLEIC ACID AS PENETRATION ENHANCERS

Authors: Dr. G. D. Gupta| Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar, Punjab, India, Prabhjot Singh Bajwa*| Amar Shahe...
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

The authors developed and evaluated a transdermal gel formulation of ketorolac tromethamine for the treatment of nociceptive somatic pain. The formulation was optimized for skin permeation enhancers, pH of the system, and dosage strength using in vitro techniques. Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that belongs to class of heteroacetyl derivatives. In present study ketorolac tromethamine topical gel was formulated using Carbopol 940 and Carbopol Ultrez 10NF polymers and three penetration enhancers neem oil, tulsi oil and oleic acid were studied to see the permeation enhancement. Oleic acid was found to be the best penetration enhancer and the three different concentration of oleic acid were used 2%, 3% and 4% w/w to find the best concentration of oleic acid and the best concentration of oleic acid was found to be 3% w/w. Formulations were evaluated for drug content, pH, viscosity, spreadability and release. In vitro release studies were performed using Keshary-Chien diffusion cell. Release kinetic analysis were done to find the kinetics of drug release.

Keywords: Ketorolac Tromethamine, Carbopol 940, Carbopol Ultrez 10NF, Topical gel
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG ALBENDAZOLE

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG ALBENDAZOLE

Authors: Chaudhari Bharat*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302020, India., Prof. Satyanand...
( 45 downloads)
Abstract

The aim of the present work was to enhance solubility of albendazole a class II drug by nanosuspension technology. Nanosuspensions are prepared by using wet mill, high pressure homogenizer, emulsion‐solvent diffusion, melt emulsification method and super critical fluid techniques. Nanosuspension is new carrier free colloidal drug delivery system with nano sized particles below 1000 nm, and considered as a great drug delivery technique to enhance the drug dissolution and solubility. In the present work nanosuspension is made by emulsion solvent diffusion (ESD) technique in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizer. All formulations showed marked improvement in dissolution and solubility compared to pure drug. Different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as stabilizers were evaluated. All formulations were in the nano size and showed marked improvement in dissolution and solubility compared to pure drug of micron size. Finally it was concluded that formulating poorly soluble drugs in the form of nanosuspension would be a promising approach in delivery of class II drugs by oral route in a simple and effective way.

Keywords: Albendazole, Solubility enhancement, Nanosuspension
PHYTOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF RENAL CALCULI (KIDNEY STONE): AN OVERVIEW

PHYTOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF RENAL CALCULI (KIDNEY STONE): AN OVERVIEW

Authors: Patel Chirag J*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020., Prof. Satyanand Ty...
( 58 downloads)
Abstract

Stone formation is one of the painful urologic disorders that occur in approximately 12% of the global population and its reoccurrence rate in males is 70-81% and 47-60% in female. It is assessed that at least 10% of the population in industrialized part of the world are suffering with the problem of urinary stone formation. Herbal remedies are gaining their importance due to inefficiency of standard pharmaceutical drugs, and reoccurrence is possible by treating with ultrasonic energy and surgery. As investigations proved that phytotherapy is potent in preventing and curing renal calculi with fewer side effects and produced satisfactory results in preventing reoccurrence of renal stones. As there are no satisfactory drugs in modern medicine, herbal remedies are proved to exert their effectiveness at different stages of stone pathophysiology; the plant based therapy is used as adjunct therapy for better relief.

Keywords: Phytotherapy, Kidney Stone, plant, calculi
CLINICAL BENEFITS OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM): A RECENT REVIEW

CLINICAL BENEFITS OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM): A RECENT REVIEW

Authors: Patel Chirag J*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020., Prof. Satyanand Ty...
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been used for 2,000 years as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments, particularly liver, kidney, and gall bladder problems. Milk thistle is widely used in Europe for hepatic and biliary disorders, and is beginning to be used to protect against nephrotoxicity as well. It protects the liver from several hepatotoxins, including Amanita mushrooms, acetaminophen and alcohol. Its primary active ingredient is silymarin, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it may help the liver repair itself by growing new cells. Several scientific studies suggest that substances in milk thistle (especially a flavonoid called silymarin) protect the liver from toxins, including certain drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), which can cause liver damage in high doses. Its leaves, flowers and roots have historically been considered a vegetable in European diets, and its fruits (achenes), which resemble seeds, have been roasted for use as a coffee substitute. The leaves of the plant are eaten in fresh salads and as spinach substitute, the stalks eaten like asparagus, and the flower heads served as one would an artichoke.

Keywords: Milk thistle, Silybum marianum, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotectant, Silymarin
A RECENT REVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM OF PARENTERAL DELIVERY: NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

A RECENT REVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM OF PARENTERAL DELIVERY: NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Authors: Patel Chirag J*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020., Prof. Satyanand Ty...
( 44 downloads)
Abstract

In modern pharmaceutics, the nose had been considered primarily as a route for local drug delivery. Nasal drug delivery for systemic effects has been practiced since ancient times. Nose is the important part of body for inhalation process. But when it is used as the route of drug delivery, attained the great attraction for various drugs because nose provides faster and higher level of drug absorption with possibility of self-administration. Hydrophobic and low molecular drugs can easily penetrate through nasal mucosa with less degradation. Fast absorption can be achieved due to large absorption surface area and high vascularisation. In emergency nasal route can be used as alternative route of parenteral. This review provide an overview of the complete information about nasal drug delivery system such as anatomy and of nose, advantage, limitations, mechanism of drug absorption, factors affecting of nasal drug delivery, absorption improvement aspects, types of nasal drug delivery system and evaluation of nasal drug delivery system.

Keywords: Nose, Parenteral, Nasal Delivery, Absorption
IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT HERBAL PLANTS IN FIELD OF COSMETICS: A RECENT REVIEW.

IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT HERBAL PLANTS IN FIELD OF COSMETICS: A RECENT REVIEW.

Authors: Patel Chirag J*| Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020., Prof. Satyanand Ty...
( 41 downloads)
Abstract

Beauty, the quality that gives pleasure to the senses, is perhaps the desire of every women being on the earth. The word “Beauty” is not only related to women, but men also used cosmetic product. The cosmetic preparations were used for the purpose of worship and sensual enjoyment. The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components. Many herbal agents used in cosmetics have been selected by a process of ‘trial and error’ and thus are used based on experience rather than experimental investigation. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty since time immemorial. Indian women have long used herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric for skin care; Henna to color the hair, palms and soles; and natural oils to perfume their bodies.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Herbal, Cosmetics, Beauty
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE ENZYME FROM LICHEN PARMELIA SP COLLECTED FROM ARUNACHAL PRADESH

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE ENZYME FROM LICHEN PARMELIA SP COLLECTED FROM ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Authors: Aniket Mukherjeee| M.Sc. in Botany, Barasat Govt. College, Calcutta University, West Bengal, India-700124
( 31 downloads)
Abstract

The plant material (lichen) was collected from the hills of the Arunachal Pradesh and it was identified as the species of the genus Parmelia. The lichen was crushed in the extraction buffer in order to isolate the enzyme. The extracted material was first tested for the presence of the protein by Lowry’s method which showed positive result. The extracted material was now tested for the presence of the enzyme amylase. 1% starch solution was used as substrate in order to test the activity of amylase. In our first experiment we wished to optimize the amount of the crude extracted enzyme, amylase from the plant material. Here we used different volumes of the extract i.e 1.0 ml, 2.5 ml, 5.0 ml, 7.0 ml and 10.0 ml [Table 1]. From the observation it could be inferred that the optimum volume of crude extract was 5ml. This is because as we increased the volume above 5ml the activity of the enzymes didn’t showed any significant increase. Therefore we used 5ml of crude extract in our further experiments. We tried to find out the time of incubation for the maximum activity of the enzyme.The time of incubation was varied from 1min to 20 min. [Table 2]. The activity increased from 1min to 10 min. But we found that from 15mins onwards the amount of starch hydrolyzed started to decrease. However we were not able to cover the short time intervals between 10 min to 15mins which may show the maximum activity. Therefore, we optimized the incubation period of 10 min only for our further experiments.The use of any enzyme for the commercial purpose depends on the temperature in which it shows its maximum activity. Our next aim was to optimize the temperature for the maximum activity of the crude extracted amylase from the foliose lichen. In our experiment a temperature range of 50C to 55 0C was maintained [Table 3].It was observed that at pH 6 and at incubation time of 10 min. the enzyme showed its maximum activity at a very low temperature of 150C. A drastic fall of enzyme activity was recorded as we increase the temperature from 250C onwards. However, a slight increase in activity was seen at 550C. This observation can be compared with the occurrence of the foliose lichen that was collected from the hills of Arunachal Pradesh at a low temperature of 10-15 0C.This low temperature activity of the amylase therefore can be used for the industrial purpose. For an enzyme activity, the pH is an important factor. So our next aim was to optimize the pH for the enzyme activity. The different pH solutions were used from pH 3.0 to pH 10 [Table 4]. It was found that the enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 while the activity is less at acidic and basic pH compared the neutral pH.Further we tried to purify the enzyme amylase by giving the ammonium sulphate cut at different concentrations, which ranged from 1.5 M to 4 M [Table 5]. It was found that the amylase showed maximum activity at an ammonium sulphate concentration of 1.5 M and 2 M. To remove the ammonium sulphate dialysis [Table 6] was done for further purification. It was observed that 0.1ml of the enzyme showed the activity comparable to the crude enzyme extract keeping all the parameters constant such as pH 7.0, incubation period of 10mins and temperature of 15°C. For the purpose of purification salting out was done by ammonium sulphate.The trace of ammonium sulphate was removed from the protein by dialysis. The activity of the enzyme both in precipitated state in ammonium sulphate and after dialysis were measured and found that the activity has increased significantly [Table 7], with respect to the crude enzyme. Lastly the partially purified enzyme amylase from the foliose lichen, Parmelia was studied to observe the effect of metals on enzyme activity. This was done to see the role of metals as metals behave as the cofactors for the enzyme activity. The different metals used were calcium, potassium, sodium, copper and iron [Table 8]. With Cu, we found that at very low concentration it increased the activity however it inhibited the activity at higher concentration. So, Cu is not desirable in the production process. Ca and Fe, however showed increase in the enzyme activity and are therefore desirable metals for the large scale production of the enzyme.Therefore all these results interpret that the enzyme amylase isolated from the foliose lichen showed its optimum activity at the low temperature of 15°C, at an incubation period of 10mins with Ca and Fe as its metal inducers. This low temperature nature of the enzyme amylase can be exploited in future for its commercial application.

Keywords: Amylase enzyme, Lichen Parmelia SP, Arunachal Pradesh
LUBIPROSTONE: A NOVEL DRUG TO TREAT CONSTIPATION

LUBIPROSTONE: A NOVEL DRUG TO TREAT CONSTIPATION

Authors: Kamlesh Garg*| Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Surinder Kumar| Medical officer, Department o...
( 38 downloads)
Abstract

Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid, is a novel drug of new class of agents called prostones. It is approved by US FDA for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation associated irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). It activates specific chloride channels in the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate intestinal fluid secretion, increase gastrointestinal transit and improve symptoms of constipation. Lubiprostone is well tolerated in majority of the patients with nausea being the most common adverse effect. Lubiprostone represents a new approach of treatment in cases of resistant or intolerable cases of chronic constipation with proven efficacy and safety.

Keywords: Lubiprostone, chronic constipation, IBS-C, spontaneous bowel movement
PHARMOCOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF CALOCASIA AN EDIBLE PLANT

PHARMOCOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF CALOCASIA AN EDIBLE PLANT

Authors: Nirmala Halligudi| Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman.
( 80 downloads)
Abstract

Colocasia esculenta Schott belongs to the family Aracea and is grown for its edible corms as a staple food throughout subtropical and tropical regions of the world Colocasia esculent (family: Araceae), In India, it is known as "arbi" or "arvi". In Indonesia, it is called talas or keladi.is widely grown throughout India. Stem of this plant are used as vegetable in Indian traditional food system from many decades. Besides stems, other parts of the plant, such as leaves and roots, have also been used in the traditional system of medicine. The leaves of the plant are reported to possess huge vitamin C content and the root is rich in starch and essential nutrient such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, oxalic acid. This plant was also used to reduce fever and pain. Furthermore, Manisha et al.(2010) claimed that the leaf of C.esculenta exhibits neuropharmacological activity. Tarro or dasheen corms provide healthy amounts of some important minerals like zinc, magnesium, copper, iron, and manganese. In addition, the root has very good amounts of potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure. The leaves are used as vegetable and as a ingredients of soup, Curry, stew or eaten fried as a side dish for rice. The present review describes morphological and pharmacological aspects of Colocasia esculenta.

Keywords: Colocasia esculenta, Pharmacology, Aracea, Flavanoids
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF AZOOSPERMIA: A REVIEW

CLINICAL ASPECTS OF AZOOSPERMIA: A REVIEW

Authors: Prof. Satyanand Tyagi*| President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074, Ani...
( 41 downloads)
Abstract

Infertility is defined as the failure of a couple to become pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected, sexual intercourse. Infertility is not "just a female problem" as there is a male infertility component in approximately 50% of couples. Azoospermia, defined as complete absence of sperm from the ejaculate, is present in about 1% of all men and in approximately 15% of infertile men. Azoospermia may occur because of reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia) or inadequate production of spermatozoa, such that spermatozoa do not appear in the ejaculate (non-obstructive azoospermia). This review includes causes of azoospermia, symptoms of azoospermia, diagnosis of azoospermia, evaluation of azoospermia and treatment of azoospermia.

Keywords: Azoospermia, Infertility, Reproductive, Sperm

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