Studia Litterarum

Studia Litterarum

Basic info

  • Publisher: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/06

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Languages and Literature, Literature
  • Publisher's keywords: History of Philology, Comparative Studies, Folklore Studies, Literary History and Theory, Historical and Theoretical Poetics
  • Language of fulltext: russian, French, english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: , Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '164' articles

How the french discovered the Lower depths

How the french discovered the Lower depths

Authors: S. Rolet
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

Despite the exceptional fame of Maxim Gorky in France since the very beginning of the 20th century, the French public did not discover The Lower Depths until October 1905, later than other European countries. The competition between two translators, Eugène Séménoff and Élie Halpérine-Kaminski, lead to a lawsuit, which delayed the staging of the play for two years. Following the end of the trial, the play was immediately produced by Lugné-Poë at L’Œuvre Theatre; the press had advertised the play as the pinnacle of the theatrical season. The most noteworthy event was the performance on October 23, 1905 when Italian tragic actress Eleonora Duse played the part of Vassilissa in Italian, while other actors played their parts in French.

Keywords: Maxim Gorky, The Lower Depths, Antoine, Lugné-Poë, Eleonora Duse, trial, J. Marchlewski, Eugène Séménoff, Élie Halpérine-Kaminski, Serge Persky
Gorky and Moscow art theatre: selective affinities

Gorky and Moscow art theatre: selective affinities

Authors: M.-Ch. Autant-Mathieu
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

Gorky started his literary career as a playwright at the Moscow Art Theatre. He wrote his first plays for its troupe in competition with Chekhov whose plays were performed there during the same period. Thus, two Moscow Art Theatre directors, Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko dealts with two authors whom they valued but whose approaches differed. My paper that forms part of a study concerning Gorky’s collaboration with the Moscow Art Theatre, focuses on the way in which Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko revised and embellished the history of their relationship with Gorky in their autobiographies both written in the Soviet period, My Life in Art (1926) and My Life in the Russian theatre (1936) respectively. In real fact, the relationship was problematic due to Gorky’s political opinions and the difficulties that the actors encountered playing his characters. Since the middle of the 1920s, Gorky became a defender of the Moscow Art Theatre and consequently, the two directors put their political and aesthetic contradictions aside and sought to reconcile themselves with Gorky who contributed to make the Art Moscow Theatre a model Soviet theatre. Besides, the writer supported Stanislavsky in founding an opera-dramatic studio in 1935 and writing and publishing “The Stanislavsky System.”

Keywords: Moscow Art Theatre, Chekhov, Stanislavsky, Nemirovich-Danchenko, My life in Art, My Life in the Russian Theatre, Soviet cultural politics, biased writing, The Lower Depths, Small people, Summerfolk, The Children of the Sun
Universal russianness, or Gorky’s the Lower depths interpreted by Zamyatin interpreted by Renoir

Universal russianness, or Gorky’s the Lower depths interpreted by Zamyatin interpreted by Renoir

Authors: L. Heller
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

This paper discusses a 1936 French film The Lower Depths based on the famous Maxim Gorky’s play and directed by Jean Renoir. The script was initially written by Evgeny Zamyatin and Jacques Companeez and then rewritten by Charles Spaak and Renoir. The first part of the paper is dedicated to the problematic reception of this film that was due to its blurred Russian-French outlook and to its seeming infidelity to Gorky’s work. Further, the essay sheds light on the intricacy of the 1936 circumstances surrounding the film production. It also discusses the role that the Albatros production society whose technical crew was composed mostly of the Russian émigré specialists played in the making of the film. Such a crew, together with the fact that the original play and its screen adaptation were written by two émigré writers, endowed the film with “universal Russianness” of a sort. The last part of the paper attempts to clarify the complicated issue of the scenario by comparing its several script versions with the final version. The paper raises new questions concerning respective roles played by different authors of the adaptation in the production of The Lower Depths.

Keywords: Jean Renoir, Evgeni Zamyatin, Maxim Gorky, The Lower Depths, French cinema, Russian émigré culture, cultural transfer, screenplay writing, screen adaptation, scenario authorship
Gorky’s Work and the Rise of Social Realism

Gorky’s Work and the Rise of Social Realism

Authors: L.A. Spiridonova
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

In 1932, the Communist party ideologists called Maxim Gorky the founder of socialist realism at the behest of Stalin. This tag has turned into an ideological cliché that accompanies the writer’s image even in the present day and does not allow us to see him as a talented artist who sought to create a new method in Russian literature. Believing classical realism to be outdated already at the beginning of the 20th century, Gorky called for such artistic format that would describe human life from the height of futuristic ideals. Starting with the novella Mother (1906), he sought to implement the synthesis of artistic consciousness with socialist ideals that he considered the means of harmonious rearrangement of the new world. In The Tales about Italy and in the autobiographical trilogy (Childhood, My Apprenticeship, and My Universities), Gorky’s dream of the happier future life under socialism manifests itself through the synthesis of realism and romanticism. In his late years, while advocating the method of “social realism” in his essays, Gorky did not write a single fictional work that would incarnate dogmatic principles that were developed already after his death.

Keywords: Gorky, Stalin, socialist realism, synthesis of realism and modernism
М. Gorky as a Theoretician of Literature

М. Gorky as a Theoretician of Literature

Authors: O.A. Ovcharenko
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

The essay focuses on the theoretical problem of M. Gorky’s artistic method claiming that Gorky’s work combines elements of realism, Romanticism, and modernism. Already at the beginning of his career, he realized that critical realism was in crisis as his opinions about the work of such realist writers as Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and others testify. Gorky was deeply unsatisfied by either his predecessors or contemporaries as we can tell based on the analysis of his critical views, and this feeling of dissatisfaction forced him to look for the ways of modernizing realism during his whole lifetime. Bearing on the concept of B.V. Mikhailovsky about the crisis of realism at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, author of this article discusses Gorky’s attempts to do something about this and of these attempts interpretation in contemporary literary studies. At the same time, the essay examines different definitions of Romanticism as suggested by Gorky as well as his interest in modernism that found manifestation in his tales written from 1922 through 1924. The section entitled “Characterology” raises the question of Gorky being unsatisfied with positive characters of critical realism and his attempts to make up for the deficiency of the latter in the images of truth-searchers, tramps, and women.

Keywords: critical realism, crisis, Romanticism, modernism, artistic method
The Lower Depths on the German Stage

The Lower Depths on the German Stage

Authors: S.M. Demkina
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

This article examines the stage history of M. Gorky’s play The Lower Depths in Germany. The author discusses German stage history of Gorky’s work against the social background and in the context of major artistic tendencies of the 20 th century. Steady interest in Gorky as a playwright in Germany is due to the acute social importance and universality of the problems reflected in his dramas. Bearing on the archive materials of the Gorky Museum, the essay explores interpretations of Gorky’s cult drama The Lower Depths in the work of European stage directors, acclaimed reformers of theatrical art. A significant part of the “Gorky and German Theater” section of the Gorky Museum (IWL RAS) is devoted to The Lower Depths. Two series of photographs represent the first German staging of Nachtasyl (German translation of The Lower Depths). The performance of Max Reinhardt and Richard Vallentin in Berlin Kleines Theater on January 10–23, 1903, had great success and good takings. After the premiere, attention to the personality of Gorky in Europe increased; he became the most popular Sovietauthor. When Nazi came to power, they banned Gorky’s work in Germany: he reappeared on the German stage only after the World War II. In the late 1960s, on the wave of Gorky’s centenary (1968), world theatres ran a series of performances based on his plays. The 1970s were marked by a renewal of interest to Gorky the playwright. The Lower Depths was staged in Europe, the USA, and the UK. Both directors and critics perceived Gorky’s dramaturgy in the context of works of his contemporaries — Shaw, Ibsen, Hauptmann, Tolstoy, Chekhov.

Keywords: theatre, Gorky, writer, literature, play, stage directors, stage
The Lower Depths in Italy: the 1926 Performance Directed by Tatyana Pavlova

The Lower Depths in Italy: the 1926 Performance Directed by Tatyana Pavlova

Authors: M.A. Arias-Vikhil
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

Russian actress and stage director Tatyana Pavlova successfully staged two of Maxim Gorky’s plays in Italy from 1926 through 1928. Those were The Lower Depths, the most famous play by Gorky, and Counterfeit Coin, a play he wrote in Sorrento; Tatyana Pavlova’s troupe played it for the first time. These productions are interesting mainly as attempts to follow the tradition of the Moscow Art Theater where The Lower Depths was staged for the first time in 1902. Maxim Gorky who was in Italy at a time participated in the staging of his play: he invited Tatyana Pavlova and her actors to his villa Galotti in Posillipo and read them the text of the play aloud, as had done it at the Moscow Art Theater. However, Pavlova’s performance did not simply reproduce the production of the Moscow Art Theater that contemporaries found too naturalistic. Pavlova’s performance impressed the audience with its mystical atmosphere instead. At the same time, the elements of the “new drama” that Gorky introduced in his play in the fashion of such early 20th century playwrights, as Chekhov, Ibsen, Strindberg, and Maeterlinck, did not meet Italian public’s approval due to the popularity of Anton Giulio Bragaglia’s “theatrical theatre” that reigned on the Italian stage at that time. Absence of dramatic action, abundance of dialogues, no division of characters into main and secondary, and overload with secondary, minor episodes hindered, in the opinion of critics, the perception of the tragic content of The Lower Depths. The premiere of Pavlova’s performance took place in December 1926, and in December 1927, the same Valle theater in Rome hosted the tour of the Moscow Art Theater. This way Italian public was able to see and compare two outstanding performances. This comparison revealed the specificity of the “Russian soul,” its pessimism and fatalism, while the characters in Pavlova’s play were distinguished by a sharp understanding of their existential situation.

Keywords: Gorky, Tatyana Pavlova, The Lower Depths, Italy, 1926, 1927, Vallee Theater, “new drama,” Italian theater criticism
Epic Specificity of Ukrainian Folk Dumas

Epic Specificity of Ukrainian Folk Dumas

Authors: S.K. Rosovetsky
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines the epic specificity of Ukrainian dumas. It does it by demonstrating the originality of the verbal form of dumas, the musical elements of its texts and their performers, blind musicians, and by discussing the place of the genre among similar epic phenomena in the world literature. While S.N. Azbelev considers dumas to be a pre-epic form correspondent to the hypothetical “lyrico-epic cantilena” (A.N. Veselovskiy), B.N. Putilov relates them to the later, “post-classic” stage in the epos development, or, namely, to “post-epos.” The essay claims that only the dumas about Khmel’nichchina were composed “on hot tracks of historical events,” but even these works brought their plotline to a more general level. One can trace the features of the “classic” type of epos in the heroic “core” of dumas: their heroes, while shown as ordinary people in the everyday life, nevertheless demonstrate epic hyperbolism as warriors. Such are ataman Matyash the Old and Ivan Konovchenko, Vdovichenko. The captivity dumas reveal certain hyperbolism as well. These dumas often use a “two-level” structure that is usual for the “classic” epos; they feature traitors and contain signs indicating the beginning of cyclization around certain characters. At the same time, they have no “epic center” nor they have an “epic ruler” variant; they do not have such typical plots as unfair incarceration of the epic hero by the epic ruler, or heroic courtship, or the fight between father and son. The essay explains these gaps by the fact that the genre of dumas emerged and their plot structure developed as complimentary to an older epic form, bylynas that continued to circulate in the 16th century. The creators of the new genre did not have to compose their dumas because songs on the same themes already circulated at that time and belonged to the generic form of bylina. The author explains transition from bylina to duma within Ukrainian epic tradition by historical changes, “social demand,” and cultural types of the performers.

Keywords: duma, epos, cantilena, bylina, hyperbolism
The Flight to Egypt in Slavic Etiological Legends about the Trees

The Flight to Egypt in Slavic Etiological Legends about the Trees

Authors: T.A. Agapkina
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

The paper examines Slavic etiological legends on the Flight to Egypt plot. These legends feature trees and bushes growing on the way of Maria’s and Joseph’s flight to Egypt. Some of these plants helped Christ and his parents escape while others betrayed them to the Herod’s army. Virgin Mary endowed the plants with “positive” or “negative” qualities respectively, as either a reward or a sign of damnation. The author analyzes folk legends that were familiar to Eastern, Western, and Southern Slavs; points out which plants were mentioned in the legends and describes the circle of plant symbols; enlists themes, types and motifs of these legends and compares them to other apocryphal legends that had the same source, namely the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew. The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew seemed to be influential mainly in Western Slavia where the main core of etiological legends was recorded.

Keywords: trees, apocrypha, etiological legends, symbolism, ethnobotany, Slavs
Folklore Collection in the Archive of Evgeny Platonovitch Ivanov Held by the IWL RAS Manuscript Department

Folklore Collection in the Archive of Evgeny Platonovitch Ivanov Held by the IWL RAS Manuscript Department

Authors: A.L. Nalepin
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

The article opens up a new research series entitled “Significance of the Folklore Materials, stored in the Department of Manuscripts at IWL RAS and in other archives, both in Russia and abroad” and offers philological interpretation of the samples of Russian folklore culture, hitherto unknown to the broad academic community. These samples belong to the tradition fundamental for the development of Russian civilization and the meanings of national mentality. Folk culture / folklore play important role in this development, as do folklore studies that examine folklore sources, their ideological constants and aesthetics concepts. The study, focusing on the analysis of the newly acquired folklore heritage, attempts to evaluate the significance of these materials and ensure their harmonious entry into the already existing folklore system. The presented research will undoubtedly enrich both Russian folklore studies and literary criticism.

Keywords: Evgeny P. Ivanov, Russian folklore, ethnology, folklore studies, folk culture, buffoons, ethnographic theater, archives
New Admissions to the K.G. Paustovsky Moscow Literary Museum-Center

New Admissions to the K.G. Paustovsky Moscow Literary Museum-Center

Authors: A.I. Dormidontova
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

This is an overview of а new collection received by the K.G. Paustovsky Moscow Literary Museum-Center in 2017, the year of the 125th anniversary of his birth. The collection consists of 366 items. Among them are manuscripts, biographical documents, letters, books with autographs, photographs, posters, booklets, and drawings. These items are of considerable interest for the study of the writer’s methods, his biography as well as for understanding the circle of his contacts. The overview incorporates a number of authentic documents.

Keywords: Konstantin Paustovsky, manuscripts, biography, history of literary works, correspondence, inscriptions, K.G. Paustovsky Moscow Literary Museum-Center
Rabelais’ “culture of folk humor” as a Technique of Archaicized Narration

Rabelais’ “culture of folk humor” as a Technique of Archaicized Narration

Authors: I.K. Staf
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

The French reception of Bakhtin’s book on Rabelais excludes the author of Gargantua and Pantagruel. However, by analyzing Rabelais’s text as a reflection of national culture and ignoring the author’s role in the development and transformation of the novel’s cultural, generic, and linguistics codes, we inevitably distort the text of the novel. This article argues that novel (especially its first two books) is closely connected to the discussions about the status and meaning of vernacular language that were relevant for the time and that generated a wide range of non-humorous works in France of the first half of the 16th century (by Jean Lemaire de Belges, Geoffroy Tory, etc.). The comic in Rabelais’s originates from French variant of humanist ideas. Famous prologs by Alcofribas Nasier represent a merely authorial play with canons and methods of the medieval literature and a parody of the medieval understanding of words and books that had little to do with the spirit of popular carnival. At the same time, the author consistently marks poetic canons of the late Middle Ages as archaic. Such combination of archaism with the intention to write a popular book can be traced in the typographical features of the first parts of the novel that allows us to rethink the term “national culture” in the light of Roger Chartier’s concept of appropriation. This reading demonstrates that Gargantua and Pantagruel is a masterly literary play that rejects not only “official” culture but also the entire Medieval culture with its poetic norms, values and rules for the sake of the incipient ideals of national humanism.

Keywords: culture of folk humor, Rabelais, Bakhtin, archaization, appropriation, Renaissance humanism, vernacular language
Diderot as the critique of art and the translation of time and place: from the pictural composition to the literary decomposition / recomposition

Diderot as the critique of art and the translation of time and place: from the pictural composition to the literary decomposition / recomposition

Authors: N. Langbour
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

In his reflections on painting, Diderot as a theoretician of fine arts explains that the painter must respect the unity of time and place for the paintings to be thematically and aesthetically solid. However, the unities present a problem for Diderot when he attempts to describe specific paintings in his accounts of painting exhibitions. Indeed, the writing requires conveying the instantaneous and unmediated perception of the work of art in discreet words. Moreover, the description of paintings suggests their fragmentation into different scenes that seems to dilate time and place out of the scene described. Diderot invents several descriptive methods that allow him solve this problem.

Keywords: Diderot, art critic, literary translation of painting, unity of time and place
The Natural Sublime Leading to the Human Sublime (on Book 8 of Wordsworth’s The Prelude)

The Natural Sublime Leading to the Human Sublime (on Book 8 of Wordsworth’s The Prelude)

Authors: Haltrin-Khalturina E.V.
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

This article seeks to trace the connection between two kinds of the Romantic sublime envisaged in Book 8 of Wordsworth’s great autobiographical poem The Prelude, or Growth of a Poet’s Mind (1805, 1850). Our focus is primarily on the 1850 text. I read Book 8 against passages from Wordsworth’s fragmentary essay “The Sublime and the Beautiful” (c. 1811/1812), attempting to grasp how the components of the natural sublime, highlighted by Wordsworth, — power, duration, individual form — got modified in Book 8 to produce the sensation of the human sublime. My interpretation posits a new pattern of emphasis on aesthetical issues encapsulated in the title of the Book 8 “Love of Nature Leading to Love of Man”: unlike the Burkean sublime, arousing fear and awe, the Wordsworthian sublime is capable of inspiring heartfelt adoration akin to love, when, in the course of The Prelude, an ordinary human being appears “ennobled outwardly before <the poet’s> sight”.

Keywords: British Romanticism, William Wordsworth, natural sublime, human sublime, the fanciful pastoral, the imaginative sublime, images of shepherds, ‘spots of time’, ‘love of man’
CHILDREN AND JUVENILE LITERATURE OF THE THIRD REICH AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NAZI IDENTITY FORMATION

CHILDREN AND JUVENILE LITERATURE OF THE THIRD REICH AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NAZI IDENTITY FORMATION

Authors: Anna V. Dobryashkina
( 11 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines the role of children and juvenile literature of the Third Reich in the development of Nazi identity. In German culture of the 1930s, the image of childhood developed during the period of the Weimar Republic underwent dramatic changes. As the Third Reich was proclaimed “the Youth Reich” (das jugendliche Reich), childhood lost its autonomy and merged with “youth,” the key concept of the Nazi era. Youth, in turn, was more than age category; it implied a certain worldview, or a specific life position that all age groups of Nazi society had to adhere to. Children and adolescents aged 10-18 years old joined the Hitler Youth, the largest organization in the world, and became carriers of the new ideology. Literature for children and adolescents of the Third Reich significantly expanded its boundaries: now it included literary works written for adults, and also those written before 1933. “Expanded borders,” therefore, implied multiple cases of intersection between children and adult literature, interpenetration and coexistence of these literatures within the cultural ambience of the Nazi period. Despite the fact that the entire system of education and upbringing fostered indoctrination while literature was one but not the only one factor in the development of the new identity in this multilevel system, it was literature that legitimized children’s refusal to follow their personal interests and encouraged their engagement in the propagated ideological system.

Keywords: German literature, children and juvenile literature, the Third Reich, Hitler’s Youth, Nazism, indoctrination

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