Studia Litterarum

Studia Litterarum

Basic info

  • Publisher: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/06

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Languages and Literature, Literature
  • Publisher's keywords: History of Philology, Comparative Studies, Folklore Studies, Literary History and Theory, Historical and Theoretical Poetics
  • Language of fulltext: russian, French, english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: , Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '164' articles

PATERNAL CARE: EMPEROR NICOLAS I IN GOGOL’S FATE

PATERNAL CARE: EMPEROR NICOLAS I IN GOGOL’S FATE

Authors: Igor’ A. Vinogradov
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

The essay for the frst time highlights the history of a long-term attention and patronage that Еmperor Nicholas I as philanthropist, censor, and reader bestowed on Nikolay Gogol. It shows the increasing interest of the members of the tsar family to Gogol’s works starting with the Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka; following the established rule, Gogol presented his just published works including Mirgorod, The Government Inspector, Dead Souls, collected works in four volumes, and Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends to the Emperor and his family. The essay enumerates and highlights numerous cases of awards and fnancial aid given to Gogol by the Emperor and his family members in the 1830–1840s; Gogol’s appeal to the Emperor concerning the censorship of The Government Inspector; his intention to turn to the help of Nicholas I on the occasion of the censorship of Dead Souls and republication of Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends; a request to the tsar to issue him a passport for his pilgrimage to the Holy Land; Gogol’s plans to get a position of the educator of the heir’s son, Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich, at the end of his life. Particular emphasis is made on the fact that the “fatherly” attitude of the sovereign towards Gogol’s writings was not always incentive; for example, alongside some other contemporaries, the Emperor disapproved of the premiere of Gogol’s “Marriage.” In conclusion, the essay draws parallels between the censorial history of The Government Inspector and posthumous fate of Gogol’s works which Nicholas I, against the censor’s verdict, approved for publication shortly before his death.

Keywords: Gogol, biography, art creativity, public ideology, censorship, interpretation, hermeneutics, spiritual heritage
THE PROBLEM OF HUMANISM IN M. GORKY’S ESSAY “A. A. BLOK”

THE PROBLEM OF HUMANISM IN M. GORKY’S ESSAY “A. A. BLOK”

Authors: Natalia N. Primochkina
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines one of the most important problems of Gorky’s work — a problem of humanism. It relates the history of creation of Gorky’s essay “A. A. Blok” (1923) to the author’s reflections about deformation of the old and the birth of the new humanism in post-revolutionary era. Gorky was one of the few Blok’s contemporaries who understood the poet’s concern about the collapse of the old humanism in the world torn by wars and revolutions. It was Gorky who listen ing to Blok’s presentation “Heine in Russia” was so affected by it that proposed to devote a special seminar related to this theme in the department of the publishing house “World Literature.” This seminar prompted Blok to write his famous article, “The Collapse of Humanism” (1919).

Keywords: M. Gorky, the problem of humanism, life and work of Alexander Blok
THE PROBLEMS OF URBANISM IN THE LITERARY-HISTORICAL PROCESS OF THE 1930s (Antsyferov and Zolotarev in the Publishing Project “History of Russian Towns as the History of Russian Everyday Life.” On Archival Materials)

THE PROBLEMS OF URBANISM IN THE LITERARY-HISTORICAL PROCESS OF THE 1930s (Antsyferov and Zolotarev in the Publishing Project “History of Russian Towns as the History of Russian Everyday Life.” On Archival Materials)

Authors: Darya S. Moskovskaya
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

After A. M. Gorky decided to return to Moscow in 1931, he conceived agitation-propaganda publishing series: “The History of Factories and Plants,” “The History of the Village,” “The History of Women from Primitive Time to the Present Day,” “The History of the World’s Merchant,” “The History of the 19th Century Young Man,” “The History of the Civil War,” “The History of Culture,” “The History of Ideas,” and “The History of the Cities.” Gorky regarded the latter as a popular scientifc version of Gogol’s The Government Inspector and Dead Souls and Shchedrin’s The History of a Town in that it exposed provincial burgesses and philistinism. A special interest of writers and journalists in the recent history of old Russian towns may be explained by the beginning of the so called reconstruction era. The organizing committee of the Soviet Writers’ Union sent out a group of writers to old Russian provincial centers so that they register positive changes in the regions. A literary critic N. P. Antsyferov and a writer A. A. Zolotarev wrote their book about Yaroslavl within the framework of the Gorky project. Their feld work discovered ancient and rich history of this Volga Region town but also inadvertently revealed the town’s social controversies. During the era of reconstruction, the state had no interest in the historical past of the merchant’s town; the vestiges of this past — Yaroslavl’s monuments, city-forming enterprises, institutions, and the matching class composition of the population, historical legends, and toponymy were being deliberately destroyed. However, as Gorky project showed, rejection of the past had led to the dicrease in the population’s cultural level and to the development of the limited “provincial consciousness.” These catastrophic changes revealed in the course of the project explain why not a single “story of Russian cities” was published. Antsyferov’s and Zolotarev’s work as part of the Gorky project helps better undestand the social and psychological depth of the urban theme in Russian fction of the 1930s that we encounter in the grotesque urban representations in Mikhail Bulgakov’s The Master and Margarita, Konstantin Vaginov Garpagoniana, Leonid Dobychin N City, and Andrey Platonov’s The Foundation Pit and Happy Moscow. The plots and characters of these novels are derived from the “dramatic terrain” and from “the sick soul” (in Spengler’s terminology) of old Russian cities in the era of socialist reconstruction.

Keywords: publishing project “History of Russian Cities as the History of Everyday Life,” urban theme, Russian fction of the 1930s, Vaginov, Gorky, Antsyferov, Zolotarev
REPRESENTATION OF THE PAST AS THE MAJOR FACTOR OF SELF-IDENTITY IN POST-SOVIET LITERATURE

REPRESENTATION OF THE PAST AS THE MAJOR FACTOR OF SELF-IDENTITY IN POST-SOVIET LITERATURE

Authors: Kazbek K. Sultanov
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

The essay examines the problem of identity in its implicit relation to the memory of the past on the material of post-Soviet literature. The question of identity or “how to think identity” is and has always been relevant for every national literature. Arguing with interpretation of identity as counterpart of nostalgic traditionalism, the author stresses not only the importance of ethno-cultural context, but also the importance of constants of non-ethnic origin such as openness, dynamism, progressiveness, and mutual permeability of cultures in the process of self-identifcation. The role of the “still persisting past” as part of this process has been so signifcant in a number of literary works that one can speak of a specifc temporal mode of the way historical memory functions. A reminiscing man/woman has become a favorite image in the literatures of the peoples of Russia. The paradigm of historical memory bears on key symbols and stock conventional characters but often itself becomes the catalyst for retrospective maximalism, idealization of the past, and tautology of meaning directed towards potential inexhaustibility of traumatic experience. However, identity as well as understanding of the past cannot be reduced to such intensity and self-sufciency of historical remembering, when the recurrence of trauma displaces projective thinking about the future and inevitability of change.

Keywords: identity, historical memory, historical narrative, reconstruction, temporality, neo-archaization, demythologization, traumatic experience, retrospective maximalism, symbolic representation
RUSSIAN FOLKLORE AS A REFLECTION OF NATIONAL CHARACTER IN THE WORK OF BORIS VYSHESLAVTZEV

RUSSIAN FOLKLORE AS A REFLECTION OF NATIONAL CHARACTER IN THE WORK OF BORIS VYSHESLAVTZEV

Authors: Alex L. Nalepin
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

The essay is focused on the spiritual crisis of Russian culture at the beginning of the 20th Century and on the search of philosophical alternatives to overcome the crisis within the framework of Russian philosophical thought. In particular, it highlights the work of Boris P. Vysheslavtzev, a major thinker among Russian immigrants and his studies in Russian folklore seen as reflection of Russian national character. The essay for the frst time introduces new data concerning the specifcity of the choice that was highly important for Russian literature and culture as it was for Russian folklore studies.

Keywords: Russian folklore, ethnology, folklore studies, fairy tale, Silver Age, Vysheslavtzev, Russian philosophy in immigration
ON THE PRESERVATION OF CULTURAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY OF “RUSSIAN GERMANS”

ON THE PRESERVATION OF CULTURAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY OF “RUSSIAN GERMANS”

Authors: Tatiana V. Govenko
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

German settlements in Russia have been known since the ancient times, however larger settlements appeared only after the “Мanifesto” issued by Empress Catherine II. Settling in Volga Region, Novorossiya, Crimea, the Caucasus, and Siberia, German colonists preserved German language, customs, traditions, songs, tales, household items, musical instruments, costumes, and cuisine — all those identity and ethnic codes that tied them to their historical homeland and, at the same time, distinguished them from the neighboring nations. Autonomous and closed character of German settlements in Russia, their long-term isolation from their nation and its cultural and historical core as well as the impossibility of modernization in step with their historical motherland contributed to the preservation of language and elements of the immigrant traditional culture in the alien environment. Vegetation was carried out at the expense of inner resources and those of the neighboring nations leading to the transformation of “the national spirit and manners.” New sub-ethnic group of “Russian Germans” formed a considerable part of the pre-revolutionary Russian population but at the beginning of the 20th century, due to the unfavorable political and military circumstances, the state forced administrative sanctions on German population that led to further destruction of the ethnic area as well as of the cultural, social, and economic conditions necessary for its development. Later, this situation got worse due to the Stalin regime, Nazi attack on the Soviet Union, and general reluctance of the state to preserve this ethnic group in a favorable condition. In the 1990s, Russian Germans massively resettled in Germany. Over the past 20 years, the number of the settlers has decreased by seven times. In Germany, “Russian Germans” faced the question of self-identity. If until the beginning of the 20th century their heritage language had been one of the German dialects, at the end of the century, Russian language and culture have become heritage for Russian Germans. Germans living in Russia today actively integrate with Germany compensating for the loss of their unique identity in the 20th century.

Keywords: history, culture, traditions, language of sub-ethnic group of Germans in Russia
NEW SOURCE FOR THE HISTORY OF “RESHILOVSKOE DELO” Podmetnoe pismo [Anonymous Letter] of 1732

NEW SOURCE FOR THE HISTORY OF “RESHILOVSKOE DELO” Podmetnoe pismo [Anonymous Letter] of 1732

Authors: Olga A. Krasheninnikova
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

The present publication is the frst edition of Podmetnoe pismo [Anonymous Letter] of 1732 which was considered to be lost. The appearance of the anonymous pamphlet criticizing the Holy Sinod church policy and foreign dominance in the Supreme power became a resonant event in the public life at the beginning of Anna Ioannovna’s reign. It caused years of judicial investigation carried out by the Secret chancellery during 1732–1738 later known as “Reshilovskoe delo.” Many innocent people were involved in this investigation and many were convicted. The pamphlet’s publication will help realize why this document was so dangerous for the state power and why it caused such violent reaction in the political circles of the time.

Keywords: Podmetnoe pismo (anonymous letter) dated by 1732, Reshilovskoe delo, Theophan Prokopovich, Anna Ioannovna
FROM THE FORGOTTEN RUSSIAN AVANT-GARDE: AN UNKNOWN ACROSTIC BY I. A. AKSENOV DEDICATED TO K. A. BOL’SHAKOV (On IWL RAS Archive Materials)

FROM THE FORGOTTEN RUSSIAN AVANT-GARDE: AN UNKNOWN ACROSTIC BY I. A. AKSENOV DEDICATED TO K. A. BOL’SHAKOV (On IWL RAS Archive Materials)

Authors: Alessandro Farsetti
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

This is the frst publication of a hitherto unknown acrostic by an avant-garde poet, I. A. Aksenov. The poem was found in the archive of the Russian Union of Soviet Writers (VSSP) in the Manuscript Section of the Institute of World Literature (IWL). This poem dated 1918 is a complex example of Russian avant-garde poetry demonstrating subtle mechanisms of meaning-making. The essay places the poem within the context of Aksenov’s work and relates it to his biography (cf. his friendship with a poet, K. A. Bol’shakov, to whom the poem was dedicated and the participation of both in S. G. Kara-Murza’s literary circle “Tuesdays”). It outlines the basic structure of the acrostic, reveals its main linguistic devices and intertextual connections. The analysis shows that the acrostic was thematically connected with two poems Aksenov and Bol’shakov wrote later the same day at Kara-Murza’s house. All the three texts capture the incubus of the Civil war (more precisely, the so called «Red terror» in the Fall of 1918) but also express hope for the return of the normal life, relying on friendship of like-minded people. In addition to this, the essay reveals possible interrelation between poetic techniques of Bol’shakov and Aksenov; this will enable us to better understand the specifcity of these two understudied representatives of Russian avant-garde.

Keywords: acrostic, I. A. Aksenov, K. A. Bol’shakov, S. G. Kara-Murza, Red terror
ON THE HISTORY OF THE COLLECTION OF ARABIC, PERSIAN, AND TURKISH MANUSCRIPTS AT THE INSTITUTE OF WORLD LITERATURE

ON THE HISTORY OF THE COLLECTION OF ARABIC, PERSIAN, AND TURKISH MANUSCRIPTS AT THE INSTITUTE OF WORLD LITERATURE

Authors: Ilya V. Zaytsev
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

This article is an attempt to reconstruct a collection of manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish languages accured at the Institute of World Literature in the 1930-40s. The core of the collection was presumably formed by manuscripts accumulated in the 1930s as part of the association “Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga” (“International Book”). Major part of the manuscripts was moved to St. Petersburg in the aftermath of World War II (now it is held by the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts). The remaining books are kept at the Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow. The fate of the remaining manuscripts from the former Institute of World Literature collection is still unknown.

Keywords: Oriental archaegraphy, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish Manuscripts
THE PLACE OF CARNIVAL IN THE CONTEXT OF MIKHAIL BAKHTIN’S PHILOSOPHY

THE PLACE OF CARNIVAL IN THE CONTEXT OF MIKHAIL BAKHTIN’S PHILOSOPHY

Authors: Sergeiy Sandler
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

The role that Mikhail Bakhtin’s book on Rabelais, and the carnival theme more generally, plays in Bakhtin’s philosophy is a perennial concern in Bakhtin studies. Indeed, how would one reconcile such ideas as the carnival crowd, the unclear boundaries of the human body in grotesque imagery, or the notion of a collective ancestral body, with Bakhtin’s personalism, his emphasis on the impossibility of merging self and other into one? However, Bakhtin himself did not see these notions as incompatible. We fnd them not only separately, in works from different periods, but also adjacently, for example in the 2nd edition of his book on Dostoevsky. In this paper, I attempt to reconstruct the philosophical context, in which carnival appears in Bakhtin’s work and to place carnival within the development of Bakhtin’s aesthetics. I follow the process in which Bakhtin’s aesthetics and theory of the novel developed from an early focus on the human image examined from another’s point of view, to the carnivalesque image, dominated by the perspective of the I-for-myself. At the heart of this process stands Bakhtin’s study of how the image of a free and creative individual has been forged in world literature. When we compare the aesthetic views and evaluations espoused by Bakhtin in different periods, we sometimes fnd sharp reversals in his position. Nevertheless, these reversals are part of a continuous process of development in what can rightly be seen as essentially the same philosophical conception that informs Bakhtin’s work in all periods.

Keywords: Mikhail Bakhtin, Carnival, personalism, theory of the novel, aesthetics
BOUNDARIES BETWEEN FICTION AND FACT IN THE LIGHT OF THE THREE LEVEL COMPARATIVE STUDIES

BOUNDARIES BETWEEN FICTION AND FACT IN THE LIGHT OF THE THREE LEVEL COMPARATIVE STUDIES

Authors: Françoise Lavocat
( 12 downloads)
Abstract

The author’s aim is to reconsider the difference between fact and fiction in diachronic, comparative, and interdisciplinary perspective. The study covers a long period, mainly from the 17th Century to the present time, drawing on literary studies but also on law studies and cognitive science. A comparative methodology it employs counterpoises artefacts pertaining to different times, cultural epochs, and geographies (paying attention to the tension between the Far East and the Western world, in particular) as well as to different media. Considering these multiple dimensions, fiction is understood as a trans-historical, transcultural, and trans-medial phenomenon. The author defines fiction as a possible world that has its own peculiar ontology and focuses on a cluster of related questions including fictional characters, paradox and “metalepsis,” a rhetorical figure that reinforces the boundary between fact and fiction as it creates the illusion of crossing it.

Keywords: Fact, fction, comparatism, possible worlds, paradox, metalepsis
BIOGRAPHY GENRE IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE: EUROPEAN AND BRITISH INFLUENCES

BIOGRAPHY GENRE IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE: EUROPEAN AND BRITISH INFLUENCES

Authors: Eugenia V. Ivanova
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines the development of the genre of biography and life writing that influenced Russian biographical tradition. This tradition stems from Plutarch’s Comparative Biographies that influenced English life writing represented by such names as James Boswell, Lytton Strachey, and others. Philosophical premises of the English biography genre are to be found in the treatise Heroes, HeroWorship, and The Heroic in History (1841) by Thomas Carlyle. French tradition represented by Gaston Tissandier’s book Science Martyrs pursued the opposite aim: to honor ordinary scientists and inventors, responsible for the technical advance of the modern civilization. Wilhelm Dilthey and Georg Simmel practiced a different approach to life writing in that they conceived biography as the history of the person’s spiritual development. This conception had direct influence on the theorists of biography genre in Russia, G. O. Vinokur, and A. G. Gabrichevsky.

Keywords: biography genre, Plutarch, James Boswell, Lytton Strachey, Thomas Carlyle, Gaston Tissandier, Wilhelm Dilthey, Georg Simmel, V. O. Vinokur, A. G. Gabrichevsky
THE BIRTH OF AVANT-GARDE FROM THE SPIRIT OF MODERNISM

THE BIRTH OF AVANT-GARDE FROM THE SPIRIT OF MODERNISM

Authors: Yuri N. Girin
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The article focuses on the problem of spirituality in the avant-garde culture of the beginning of the 20th Century. Everyone — artists, writers, theologians, philosophers, and reformers — wrote about the peculiar spirituality of the New World. At the same time, the concept of the spiritual was as widespread and universal as it was controversial. The interest in the peculiar spiritual situation of the avant-garde epoch in the public conscience since the end of the 20th Century is symptomatic — a man of the Novecento haven chosen the sign of modernity as an emblem endeavors to understand his age and his place in it. That is why it seems extremely important to be able to fnd a proper balance between the negative and the assertive tendencies of the avant-garde culture that formed the cultural basis of the 20th Century. The author attempts to understand the meaning of Spirituality at the beginning of the 20th Century. The essay suggests that the entire avant-garde age, taken broadly, may be considered as a great Mystery act given the inherent inseparability of the intuitive and the sensory, on the one hand, and historical and social aspects, on the other hand: creative work was understood in terms of Creation.

Keywords: avant-garde, tradition, modernity, modernism, deformation, art, spirituality, creative work, Mystery
TRAGICOMEDY OF CARLO GOLDONI

TRAGICOMEDY OF CARLO GOLDONI

Authors: Mikhail L. Andreev
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

Goldoni’s tragicomedies while being less popular and lesser studied than his comedies nonetheless provide us with rich material for the study of the genre’s general properties. Goldoni’s tragicomedies fall into two groups: in his plays written in the 1730s, the author but revises conventional repertoire tradition of commedia dell arte; in his plays of the 1750s, he makes an attempt to reform the genre itself. The latter group forms three peculiar trilogies: passions, sincerities, and hypocrisies. In this part of his creative work, Goldoni remains true to the study of the character as the main object of dramatic representation. However, whereas in comedies, the character is the major impediment to the achievement of the plotline goals, in tragicomedies, it plays the opposite function: leads the dramatic collision to the happy conclusion. The change of function marks the shift within the generic framework.

Keywords: Carlo Goldoni, tragicomedy, comedy, poetics of the genre
THE GATES OF HORN AND IVORY: A GEOGRAPHICAL MYTH

THE GATES OF HORN AND IVORY: A GEOGRAPHICAL MYTH

Authors: Jörg Schulte
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The articles proposes a new interpretation of the Homeric myth of the gates of horn and ivory that occurs in Book 19 of the Odyssey. It frst argues that horn (the material of the southern gate in neoplatonic commentaries) can be found in the sign of Capricornus. More complex is the argument that also ivory (the material of the northern gate in neoplatonic commentaries) is derived from astronomical myths: the myths discussed are the myth of Adonis (beginning with the story about the ivory statue carved by Pygmalion), the myths of the Erymanthian, the Calydonian, and the Ephesian boars, the myth of Orion, and the myth of the constellation ursa major. An enquiry into the occurance of ivory in Greek mythology leads to the hypothesis that the constellation ursa major was identifed with a boar (with ivory tusks). The hypothesis implies that the gates of horn and ivory were already at the times of Homer understood as an astronomical myth that described the northernmost and southernmost points of the sky.

Keywords: Homer myth, the myth of Adonis, the myths of the Erymanthian, the Calydonian, and the Ephesian boars, the myths of Orion and of the constellation ursa major

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