Studia Litterarum

Studia Litterarum

Basic info

  • Publisher: A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/06

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Languages and Literature, Literature
  • Publisher's keywords: History of Philology, Comparative Studies, Folklore Studies, Literary History and Theory, Historical and Theoretical Poetics
  • Language of fulltext: russian, French, english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

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  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: , Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '164' articles

EDMUND SPENSER’S “THE FAERIE QUEEN” AS “CONTINUED ALLEGORY”: FROM EMBLEMATIC AND CONCEITED WRITING TO SYMBOLICAL

EDMUND SPENSER’S “THE FAERIE QUEEN” AS “CONTINUED ALLEGORY”: FROM EMBLEMATIC AND CONCEITED WRITING TO SYMBOLICAL

Authors: Elena V. Haltrin-Khalturina
( 44 downloads)
Abstract

The article aims to direct attention of the Russian readers to the richness of Spenser’s allegorical palette in his poem “The Faerie Queene.” The words “allegory” and “symbol” are employed here in their modern sense, with reference to the defnitions discussed by scholars of literature and philosophy. In particular, the article draws on A. F. Losev’s and S. S. Averintsev’s studies of symbol and the neighboring semantic-and-structural categories (allegory, personifcation, artistic image, metaphor, and myth). Some of these terms were divorced from one another during the Romantic period. For Spenser, the borderline between allegory and symbol seems to be quite fuzzy: both of them convey hidden meaning. The discussion of passages from “The Faerie Queene” speaks for Spenser’s departure from the pure allegory. His “continued allegory” embraces emblems, extended metaphors (conceits), mythical and symbolic fgures.

Keywords: allegory, personifcation, emblems, conceit, myth, symbol, Redcross knight, Una, Satyrane, Archimago
LE PARADOXE DU CRITIQUE D’ART: LA TENSION ENTRE PATHÉTIQUE ET IRONIE DEVANT LES TABLEAUX TOUCHANTS [PARADOX AS THE CRITIQUE OF ART: TENSION BETWEEN PATHOS AND IRONY OF THE “TOUCHING” PAINTINGS]

LE PARADOXE DU CRITIQUE D’ART: LA TENSION ENTRE PATHÉTIQUE ET IRONIE DEVANT LES TABLEAUX TOUCHANTS [PARADOX AS THE CRITIQUE OF ART: TENSION BETWEEN PATHOS AND IRONY OF THE “TOUCHING” PAINTINGS]

Authors: Nadège Langbour
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

In his Salons, Denis Diderot pays special attention to “touching,” pathetic paintings, and his interest to J.-B. Greuze’s art is evidence to that. When Diderot turns to describe Greuze’s canvases or genre painting of J.-B. Le Prince or P. A. Baudouin, he fnds himself within the framework of sentimental rhetoric related at once to the pathos of the painted scene and to the sensations of the viewer. Diderot’s style becomes heterogeneous and has a peculiar fluidity that often conceals tongue-in-cheek ironic comments. This irony is, in the frst place, a critical instrument of the “salonist” that allows touch upon some of the technical infelicities of the paintings with sly humor. At the same time, not only paintings become the targets of Diderot’s irony; irony manifests itself in the depiction of pathetic paintings when Diderot himself enters the stage. Diderot appears as a “dicephalus” of a kind, a creature with two heads — at once a spectator and an actor. As a spectator, he is fully immersed in the painting, follows the pathos of the scene and describes it with the help of sentimental rhetoric. As an actor, he is capable to distance himself from the painted scene and becomes “insensitive” as the actor whose principles of acting he explicates in “The Paradox of the Actor.” This latter capacity of the contemplator predetermines ironic comments in his descriptions of pathetic paintings.

Keywords: D. Diderot, Salons, touching paintings, J.-B. Greuze, J.-B. Le Prince, P. A. Baudouin, rhetoric, sentimentality
ROMANTIC SELF IN SEARCH OF GOD: PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDEAS OF S. T. COLERIDGE

ROMANTIC SELF IN SEARCH OF GOD: PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDEAS OF S. T. COLERIDGE

Authors: Ekaterina P. Zykova
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

The article deals with spiritual progress of S.T. Coleridge from his youthful interest in the followers of Locke (his direct predecessors in English intellectual tradition) to his fascination with pantheism, to his study of Kant and Shelling, and to his fnal embracing of Christian faith in its Anglican version. Coleridge viewed himself as a poet-philosopher, whose intuitive faith should be founded on philosophical premises and should fnd its expression both in his works and his life, and should correspond to his existential experience. His spiritual growth took place in the last decades of the 18th century, in the atmosphere of decline of Anglican faith and of intensive development of natural sciences and empirical rationalist philosophy, which influenced both religion and aesthetics (including new conception of imagination). In England it were the Romantics of the Lake School, and Coleridge frst of all, who transformed 18th century theory of imagination regarding it as an instrument of knowledge, as a means of penetrating into the spiritual world. Another line of continuity linked Coleridge to the religious thought of that age: he was interested in Methodism and Unitarianism. Being disillusioned in Unitarianism, Coleridge was fascinated for some time by Spinoza’s pantheism (expressed in his poem “Aeolian Harp”), but soon he felt that this system takes off man’s responsibility, and consequently, his moral liberty. He found the antidote from pantheism in Kantian philosophy, but the fact that for Kant, God and freedom were regulative and not absolute notions impelled the poet to continue his search and turn to Shelling. Coleridge craved for the vindication of man’s spiritual freedom but he also needed the proof that the world we live in, as it is created by God, is somehow spiritualized, and this he found in the philosophy of Shelling. But soon the philosophical synthesis achieved by Shelling appeared too formal to Coleridge. It is in Christian faith, in the dogma of Trinity that Coleridge found a reconciliation of the spiritualization of the outward world he valued in Spinozism, on the one hand, and moral freedom of the self, on the other hand.

Keywords: reason, imagination, free will, necessity, Methodism, Unitarianism, pantheism, Anglicanism
THE APHORISM AND PLAY IN THE ARTISTIC PARADIGM OF THE NOVELS BY CRÉBILLON-FILS

THE APHORISM AND PLAY IN THE ARTISTIC PARADIGM OF THE NOVELS BY CRÉBILLON-FILS

Authors: Natalya V. Lidzerhos
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines the function of ludic poetics and the role of aphorisms in the novels by Crébillon-fls: “L’Ecumoire, ou Tanzaï et Néadarné.” “Les Egarements du cœur et de l’esprit,” and “Le Sopha.” It argues that the specifcity of the artistic paradigm of Crébillon’s novels draws from the synthesis of the ludic origin and aphoristic writing while their “inner measure” (N. D. Tamarchenko) is determined by skeptical and ironic attitude to the world typical for rococo. The ludic poetics creates the second level of encoding in the novels that makes them interesting to different audience. A naive reader enjoys a frivolous work that has a comical situation at its core; a more sophisticated reader peruses a “novel with a clue,” that is a novel with a metaphorical plot containing ironic insinuations and allusions to contemporary realities. Aphorisms in the dialogues reveal the absence of the shared, universal truth and demonstrate its contingency on the speaker’s viewpoint. Taken together, aphorisms of Crébillon’s characters reflect the author’s own dialogical relation to reality and relativity of the moral truths in his opinion. Blurring semantic meaning of the words related to moral and ethical sphere was typical for rococo; it allowed these words collide in a ludic manner within the aphoristic framework; it also prompted further dialogization of aphoristic statements and the establishment of dialogic relations among characters and between the author and the world. By broadening the local chronotope and establishing contacts between the novel’s conventional plot and reality, by contributing to the ongoing dialogue among the characters, the author, and the reader, by reflecting the controversies of the rococo worldview and sophisticating the style, the ludic poetics and aphoristic writing defned stylistic and generic specifcity of Crébillon’s novel — intellectual in form and philosophical in content.

Keywords: artistic paradigm, ludic poetics, aphorism, Crébillon-fls, novel, rococo
THE MOTIF OF THE STAGE PLAY IN THE 19th CENTURY AUSTRIAN FICTION

THE MOTIF OF THE STAGE PLAY IN THE 19th CENTURY AUSTRIAN FICTION

Authors: Alla A. Strelnikova
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The article discusses the evolution of the stage play motif in the Austrian fction during the 19th Century. Occupying a special place in the Austrian culture, theater becomes a peculiar form of conceptualizing the most important issues of being and social life. Theater forms important part of the fctional world of such Austrian writers as A. Stifter, F. von Zaar, P. Rosegger, and M. G. Saphir. The essay analyzes the stage play motif in the context of literary Biedermeier and its didactic, humorous, and ironic views of the theatrical culture in Vienna. The motifs of the mask, the stage, and the curtain become permanent attributes in the works by Austrian authors. Theater plays are educational and instructive (as in the novels by Stifter) or carnivalesque (by Saphir), but in any case they remain а positively charged dominant in the fctional world of these authors. However, a truly magnifcent performance, according to the most thoughtful Austrian writers such as A. Stifter, among its landscapes and changing seasons, as opposed to the theatrical and hypocritical salon life of the capital. This world view is prevalent, for example, in Stifter’s “Indian Summer.” In the second half of the 19th Century, the joyful apprehension of stage play abandons literature for Viennese operetta. At the end of the 19th Century, the playfulness of the Austrian fction gives way to disturbing motifs and tragic vision. We encounter an understanding of life as at once a tragic and farcical theatrical performance in the novels by M. Ebner-Eschenbach and A. Schnitzler which marked a transition to the philosophical and existential view of the theater, typical for the literature of Austrian modernism.

Keywords: Austria, Biedermeier literature, theater, stage play, Stifter, Rosegger, Saphir
PORTRAIT DE L’ARTISTE EN SINOLOGUE CAMILO PESSANHA (1867–1926) ET LA CHINE

PORTRAIT DE L’ARTISTE EN SINOLOGUE CAMILO PESSANHA (1867–1926) ET LA CHINE

Authors: Gérard М. М. Siary
( 17 downloads)
Abstract

This essay analyzes the image of China in the work of the Portuguese poet C. Pessanha. Not only it focuses on Pessanha’s place in the history of Portuguese literature but also analyzes such comparativist aspect as the image of East Asia in the Western culture and European orientalism. The image of China in Pessanha’s work is ambivalent and was developed under the influence of the “myths” invented by the turn-of-the-century decadent writers, essayists, and orientalists whose insights peeped into the hitherto impenetrable and closed Chinese culture. Pessanha does not like and even despises China but is fascinated by the vital energy of this country and its people. He pays special attention to Macau that becomes for him the symbol of Portuguese Empire. Through the image of Macau, he talks about the past, the present, and the future of Portugal, a country that he believed could be reborn if regained its energy.

Keywords: Pessanha, China, Portugal, Macao, sinophobia, decadence
ANDRÉ GIDE’S RETOUR DE L’U.R.S.S. AND ITS PUBLICATION HISTORY: A VIEW FROM THE KREMLIN

ANDRÉ GIDE’S RETOUR DE L’U.R.S.S. AND ITS PUBLICATION HISTORY: A VIEW FROM THE KREMLIN

Authors: Natalia Yu. Kharitonova
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

The article discusses the publication history of André Gide’s book Return from the USSR written after his trip to the Soviet Union. It explains how the Kremlin gathered information about the book and how ofcial Soviet reaction to this publication was developed. Since Gide’s decision to join in the camp of the “friends of the USSR,” information about it had been deliberately mispresented, that is why at the end of 1936 communist ideologues had to reap the fruits of their shortsightedness. Immediately after the Congress in the Defense of Culture, which took place in 1935 in Paris, Gide converged with the anti-Stalinist opposition in France and Belgium and welcomed a campaign in support of Victor Serge, politician and writer who had passed in the case of the so called Zinoviev group and had been exiled to Orenburg. Soviet authorities knew about Gide’s conversion but accepted Mikhail Koltsov’s position who vouched Gide’s absolute loyalty. When Gide began preparing his manuscript for publication, the Kremlin was immediately informed about it. Among the informers were I. Ehrenburg, F. Masereel, and E. Ratmanova. Attempts to dissuade Gide from publication failed. The book was translated into Russian for the leaders of the Communist party and Gide was condemned in the Soviet press. The history of the book’s publication and attention that the Kremlin paid to this question, however, demonstrates that the State control of the literary and cultural feld was circumscribed within the Soviet borders. The Soviets failed to implement their program in the West. The case of Gide’s Return from the USSR shows the obvious failure of Soviet cultural diplomacy and its strategies.

Keywords: André Gide, USSR, cultural diplomacy, opposition, Return from the USSR
ON THE FRAGMENTARY PERCEPTION OF FRENCH LITERATURE IN THE 18TH CENTURY RUSSIA AND SWEDEN

ON THE FRAGMENTARY PERCEPTION OF FRENCH LITERATURE IN THE 18TH CENTURY RUSSIA AND SWEDEN

Authors: Mikhail Yu. Ljustrov
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The essay examines the problem of the fragmentary perception of European literature in the 18th Century Russia. The author compares the body of 17th Century French poetical works translated into Russian and Swedish languages and published in the Russian and Swedish editions in the middle of the 18th Century. Regardless of many predicted coincidences, Russian and Swedish lists are not identical. Some 17th Century French poets unknown in Russia were, however, extremely popular in the 18th Century Sweden. The essay focuses on the work of E. Pavillon, a member of the French Academy and of the General R. de Bussy-Rabutin. The “Våra fӧrsӧk” edition released in Sweden in the 1750s, included numerous translations of the poems by these two authors as well as discussions about the specifcity of their poetic gifts. Pavillon’s works are in the center of discussion by Swedish authors. In G. F. Gyllenborg’s “Satire öfver Sprätthökar,” E. Pavillon is compared with J.-B. Rousseau, in H. Ch. Nordenflycht’s “De svenska poeter” he is identifed with a famous Swedish poet J. Frese. Swedish poems mentioning R. de Bussy are absent in the edition of “Våra fӧrsӧk”, however the French poet was familiar to Swedish authors, and the interest in his works drew on his role in the 17th Century Franko-Swedish history. Swedish and French participation in the Thirty Years War and a visit of Christine, Queen of Sweden, to Paris were well known to Swedish authors. The paper argues that the lack of interest in the work of these authors in Russia is conspicuous if compared with their Swedish perception. This may be explained by cultural and historical circumstances and also by the lack of demand for some of the “species” of the 17th Century French poetry in the Russian poetry of the 18th Century.

Keywords: Russian poetry of the 18th Century, French poetry of the 17th Century, Swedish poetry of the 18th Century, E. Pavillon, R. de Bussy-Rabutin, H. Ch. Nordenflycht
GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

Authors: Yuri V. Mann
( 15 downloads)
Abstract

The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fll in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions) of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

Keywords: Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters, Nikolay Gogol, textology, international signifcance of Russian literature
LEO TOLSTOY’S POPULAR THEATRE: THE BEGINNING OF THE WRITER’S EDUCATIONAL SERVICE

LEO TOLSTOY’S POPULAR THEATRE: THE BEGINNING OF THE WRITER’S EDUCATIONAL SERVICE

Authors: Irina I. Sizova
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

This article examines the frst phase of Leo Tolstoy’s educational service in the feld of the popular theatre on the example of the stage history of his comedy The First Distiller (1886). I see my task in the reconstruction of the frst stage version of this play prepared by V. G. Chertkov on the author’s request, with the use of archival information and data from the periodicals of 1886. For the frst time, the essay argues that Chertkov was working in four different directions. He was negotiating with Moscow Buffonery Theatre, Vasileostrovskiy Workers’ Theater, St. Petersburg scenic platforms, and the Theatre of Popular Entertainment in the village of Alexandrovskoe near St. Petersburg. Chertkov covered the frst performance of The First Distiller (Alexandrovskoe, July 6 and 20 1886) that had a big resonance. The essay explains (for the frst time in Tolstoy criticism) why other performances of this play had never taken place. Technical and fnancial difculties prevented performances in Moscow Buffonery Theater and Vasileostrovskiy Theater. The symbolism of Tolstoy’s comedy (his images of devils and hell) became an impediment for staging the play at other popular theaters that Chertkov reached with the help of the patron of art, I. M. Sibiryakov.

Keywords: Leo Tolstoy, popular theater, comedy The First Distiller (1886), history of performances, Leo Tolstoy’s educational service, chronicle of popular performances (1886)
BLOK’S ROSE AND CROSS IN THE LIGHT OF ROSICRUCIAN TRADITIONS

BLOK’S ROSE AND CROSS IN THE LIGHT OF ROSICRUCIAN TRADITIONS

Authors: Lena Szilard
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The author explores the mystical nature of symbols and the leitmotif structure of Alexander Blok’s drama Rose and Cross. The choice of the 13th Century Languedoc as the basis for the drama’s chronotope shows that the poet related the origin of “Rosicrucianism” not to the German lands of Luther’s Reformation (1517) and Valentin Andreа (1614), as most contemporary works about Rosicrucianism do, but to the territory and period of Albigensian Cathar “herecy”. Thanks to the emblematically accentuated title that functions as the plot’s counterpoint, the text’s system of symbolic leitmotifs reveals deep levels of meaning. The main leitmotif in this system becomes a formula “Joy-Suffering” from Gaetan’s song. In the course of its interpretations by the drama’s characters, the formula undergoes semantic modifcations and is eventually translated into a philosophical statement about the ambivalence and bipolarity as the foundations of our world, implemented in the drama’s structure as a counterpoint principle. The text reconstructs the twists and turns of the birth of the emblem through the dynamics of symbolic imagery of Cross and Rose; the emblem of Rosicrucianism gradually moves from the realm of unofcial cultural layers to that of the ofcially recognized ones. This way, Blok’s drama Rosa and Cross as if traces the birth of this generalized, philosophical emblem and its movement from the archetypal images to the notion and derivative visual forms not as much though the core ideas of Rosicrucianism but via musical and poetical combination of symbols and emblems. These symbols and emblems vary from trivial associations with the “restaurant” context of Blok’s poetry to the symbols accessible to the few initiated. All this allows the poem represent a symbolic path of the emblem pointing at its origins and reminding us of the role of Albigensians — Tampliers — Martinists in building this path and — and, hence, about the strata of centuries, cultures, and their emblems.

Keywords: Rose and Cross, Alexander Blok, Rosicrucianism, symbol counterpoint, emblem
PETER THE GREAT REVISED: ON THE HISTORY OF THE TEXT OF ALEXEY TOLSTOY’S NOVEL

PETER THE GREAT REVISED: ON THE HISTORY OF THE TEXT OF ALEXEY TOLSTOY’S NOVEL

Authors: Anna S. Akimova
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines Alexey Tolstoy’s incomplete revisions (1944– 1945) of the frst book of his novel Peter the Great. These revisions were taken into account in the course of the text’s preparation for the frst Collection of Complete Works (1946) compiled and edited after Tolstoy’s death. On the one hand, the revisions of 1944–1945 continued the main line of Tolstoy’s work on his previous editions (general tendency to conciseness, elimination of colorful epithets, cuttings, clarifcation of images and historical realities). On the other hand, Tolstoy returned to those images what he had repudiated when preparing one of the frst drafts of the text (as for example, the image of Nikita Pustosvyat). Besides, according to A. V. Alpatov, the author cut out the “erroneous moments” related to the mention of Germans and German influence on Peter in the novel (“the elements of idealization in the depiction of Kukuy”). One of the main directions in the author’s revisions had to do with the image of the main character, Peter the First. Tolstoy idealized Peter by cutting the descriptions of his disease and seizures and by correcting the scenes representing his wrath and mad, explosive temper. Thus, in 1944–1945 Tolstoy seriously reworked his novel including its contents.

Keywords: Aleksey N. Tolstoy, novel Peter the Great, archival materials, ideological editing, textual criticism
THE NON-(POST)CLASSICAL WORLDVIEW IN NATIONAL LITERARY HISTORY: R. AKHMETZYANOV’S LYRICS

THE NON-(POST)CLASSICAL WORLDVIEW IN NATIONAL LITERARY HISTORY: R. AKHMETZYANOV’S LYRICS

Authors: Venera R. Amineva
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

The article examines subjective architectonics in the work of the Tatar poet R. Akhmetzyanov’s (1935–2008) seeing it as a medium that discloses peculiar post-classical paradigm in the Tatar lyrics of the 1960–1680s. The object of analysis is a series of poems representing various thematic aspects. Using these poems as а case study, the paper aims to to achieve theoretical understanding of the role avant-garde played in the renewal of the Tatar literature in this period. The author employs a systematic structural methodology: an individual work is seen as a solid artistic system that develops a solid worldview representing a specifc aesthetic concept of reality. The essay claims that in love poetry, there is a certain parallelism that ensues an open world model that includes: the autonomy of the “I” and the “you,” the protagonist’s desire to get closer to “her,” and the achievement of the otherworldly and passive unity with the beloved. In poems addressing national and sociocultural problems, the protagonists and those he calls “we” (children and the country) form a liaison that knows not subjective borders. Existential interpenetration of the “I” and the “we” reflects the process of the protagonist’s selfidentifcation. In a number of works, there is a peculiar super-protagonist whose relation to the world of the “I” is that of un-engagement and transcendence. The dialogue of the “I” with this transcendent position has a structure-forming function in that it reveals the peculiarities of self-apprehension and self-identifcation of the protagonist. Subjective neo-syncretism corresponds with the special structure of the verbal image and the employment of both mythopoetic language and tropes that interact with each other dialogically. The principle of poetic and fgurative architectonics is associated with the law of polygenres and polystylistics responsible for the integrity of the analyzed works.

Keywords: Tatar lyrics, avant-garde, fgurative languages, subjective sphere, composition, architectonics
“THE VERSE ABOUT THE HOLY MOUNTAIN” BY VYACHESLAV IVANOV: A CLOSE READING. FIRST ESSAY

“THE VERSE ABOUT THE HOLY MOUNTAIN” BY VYACHESLAV IVANOV: A CLOSE READING. FIRST ESSAY

Authors: Andrey L. Toporkov
( 16 downloads)
Abstract

In the course of his literary career, Vyacheslav Ivanov repeatedly turned to the genre of spiritual verse (dukhovnyi stikh). This genre implies a specifc poetic form, certain stylistic properties, performance, and circulation. Among Ivanov’s works, there are both: texts that reproduce traditional spiritual verse with some modifcations and original works stylized as sacred poems. “The Verse about the Holy Mountain” (1900) belongs to the second group. Though the text is stylized as spiritual verse, both on the level of its poetics and content, it does not imitate any particular folkloric text. Semantic structure of the “Verse” is organized by two semantic felds. The frst one is marked by words with the roots свет- “light” and свят- “saint.” In “The Verse about the Holy Mountain,” “light” and “holiness” are interrelated not only on the verbal level but also on religious and symbolic levels of the poem. Ivanov seemed to have intended his text to be perceived not only aurally but also as a unique verbal icon by the reader’s inner vision. The second group of words refers to a semantic feld marked by the verbs видеть “to see” and ведать “to know.” Ivanov would repeatedly return to the images from “The Verse about the Holy Mountain” in the course of his later life. We encounter references to the poem’s plot in his articles “Living Tradition” (1915) and “The Face and Masks of Russia” (1917) as well as in his works The Russian Idea (1930) and Dostoevsky: Tragedy — Legend — Mysticism (1932) published in German. Certain images related to “The Verse about the Holy Mountain” may be found among the drafts of “The Tale about Tsarevich Svetomir,” a text Ivanov was working on from 1928 through 1949.

Keywords: poetry of Vyacheslav Ivanov, symbolism, mysticism, spiritual verse, literary stylization, New Jerusalem, Apocalypse
IN SEARCH OF FOLKLORE IMPERATIVE: IVAN A. IL’YIN AND PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT OF THE RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION CIRCLE

IN SEARCH OF FOLKLORE IMPERATIVE: IVAN A. IL’YIN AND PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT OF THE RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION CIRCLE

Authors: Alex L. Nalepin
( 18 downloads)
Abstract

This article is part of the larger research project “Philosophical Thought of the Russian ‘Silver Age’ and Folklore.” Its aim is philosophical reflection of the Russian folk culture considering it as living tradition that largely determines the development of Russian civilization and the meanings of national mentality. Philological and philosophical branches of folklore studies are particularly important for the ongoing research of folklore and its role in national culture; philosophical folklore studies, for example, are concerned with ideological concepts and dominants of folk poetry. This article examines the choice of folklore vector in the work of Ivan Il’yin, a philosopher of Russian post-revolutionary Immigration diaspora in Europe. It for the frst time introduces and motivates a concept of folklore imperative that dominated the late phase of Il’yin’s philosophical thought. Also, it introduces new materials that shed light on the study of this choice that was very important for Russian philosophy, literature, and culture as it was for Russian folklore studies.

Keywords: Russian folklore, ethnology, folklore studies, fairy tale, Silver Age, Rosanov, Il’yin, Russian philosophy in immigration

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