Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences

Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: IJPMR Publishing Press, India.
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine, Health and Wellness
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 6 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2014
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '459' articles

A comparative study of intrathecal clonidine  and intrathecal tramadol for prolongation of neuraxial blockade analgesia with 0.5% bupivacaine in orthopaedic surgery

A comparative study of intrathecal clonidine and intrathecal tramadol for prolongation of neuraxial blockade analgesia with 0.5% bupivacaine in orthopaedic surgery

Authors: K. Selvarju Selvaraju
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia is advantageous in that it uses a small dose of the anaesthetic, is simple to perform and offers a rapid onset of action, reliable surgical analgesia and good muscle relaxation.Effective postoperative analgesia can be provided by neuraxially applied local anaesthetics or opioids, which may be accompanied by unwanted side effects like motor block, hypotension or respiratory depression. Aim: A comparative study of Intrathecal Clonidine and Intrathecal tramadol along with 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine for prolongation of Subarachnoid neuraxial blockade. Materials and methods: it is prospective randomized study which have 2 groups, each group of 25 patients randomly selected. Group A (N-25): Received Inj Clonidine hydrochloride (37.5 mcg) and 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine hydrochloride (3.5 ml) + 0.75 ml Normal saline, Group B (N-25): Received inj Tramadol (25 mg) and 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine hydrochloride (3.5 ml). Results: Intraoperatively significant differences in BP, pulse rate were noted, like hypotension and bradycardia more in the clonidine group.Time to full motor recovery was not delayed in any of the patients in both the groups.The mean duration of analgesia did differ in both groups. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 326.40 + 30.39 mins and in Group B was 302.40 + 12.00 mins. Time for two segment regression did differ in both the groups. The patients in both the groups showed minimal side effects, like nausea, vomiting and pruritis. The incidences of side effects were statistically insignificant. Both intrathecal clonidine and intrathecal tramadol act synergistically to potentiate bupivacaine induced sensory spinal block. Excellent surgical anesthesia and an extended analgesia was observed in post-operative period with minimum side effects were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Study has demonstrated that addition of Intrathecal Clonidine to bupivacaine, even in very small doses, significantly improves the onset and duration of sensory and motor block with relative hemodynamic stability. The 37.5 mcg dose provides maximum benefit and minimum side effects. It is recommended over Intrathecal Tramadol.

Keywords: Clonidine,analgesia,anaesthetic.
Experience of sexual/reproductive health and dance education in a care and social rehabilitation center

Experience of sexual/reproductive health and dance education in a care and social rehabilitation center

Authors: Tülay Bulbul
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Purpose: In the study, a dance training was made in order to encourage personality development and information about Sexual Health/Reproductive Health (SH/RH) was given in order to raise awareness and precision to adolescents.Methods: Adolescent girls aged under 18 years, who were substance addicted, who had been living on streets or had been pushed to streets due to abuse or neglect, who had been excluded by families and who were decided to be protected or under care lived in a centre. All of the girls were planned to be recruited to the study while education sessions were being designed however difficulty in understanding and severe mental disorders led to less participants (n=10) in dance and SH/RH educations. Results: Mean age of the girls was 15.9±1.8 years while mean age of first sexual relation was 14±1.6 years. It was determined that two of the girls knew condom, one knew abortion and one knew anal sexual intercourse as contraceptive method before the education. Mean PedsQL post- and pre-education scores of adolescents was 68.3 and 74.1, respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dance and SH/RH educations have increased the level of knowledge and quality of life of adolescents.

Keywords: Adolecent, Reproductive Health, Sexual Heallth, Dans Education
A mini review on solubility enhancement technique – Solid dispersion

A mini review on solubility enhancement technique – Solid dispersion

Authors: Himanshu k
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Many new drug substances have low aqueous solubility which can cause poor bioavailability after oral administration. Solid dispersions are one of the most promising strategies to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. By reducing drug particle size to the absolute minimum, and hence improving drug wettability, bioavailability may be significantly improved. Generally, SDs can be defined as a dispersion of active ingredients in molecular, amorphous and/or microcrystalline forms into an inert carrier. The application of solid dispersions is a useful method to increase the dissolution rate of drugs. This article is indented to combine literature on solid dispersion technology for solubility enhancement with special emphasis on mechanism responsible for the same by solid dispersion, various preparation methods and evaluation parameters.

Keywords: Bioavailability, dissolution rate, solid dispersion, poorly water-soluble drugs.
A Review on Diabetes Mellitus: Current Update on Management and Treatment

A Review on Diabetes Mellitus: Current Update on Management and Treatment

Authors: Gopala Krishna Chinnaboina
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM), or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Conventionally, diabetes has been divided into three types namely: Type 1 DM or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in which body fails to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This is also termed as "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, with or without an absolute insulin deficiency. This type was previously referred to as or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main type is gestational diabetes which occurs when women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level during her pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM. Currently available pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus includes insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Such drugs acts by either increasing the secretion of insulin from pancreas or reducing plasma glucose concentrations by increasing glucose uptake and decreasing gluconeogenesis. However these current drugs do not restore normal glucose homeostasis for longer period and they are not free from side effects such as hypoglycemia, kidney diseases, GIT problems, hepatotoxicity, heart risk problems, insulinoma and they have to take rest of life. Various herbal drugs have been also proved effective due to their beneficial contents in treatment of diabetes. The present review therefore is an attempt to focus on the physiological aspects of diabetes, its complications, goals of management, and synthetic and herbal treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: Insulinoma, hyperinsulinemia, adiponectin, Momordicacharantia.
Presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water sources of indigenous peoples in Boliwong, Philippines

Presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water sources of indigenous peoples in Boliwong, Philippines

Authors: RV Labana
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

The study investigated the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water system from an untapped indigenous community inhabited by the Tuwali ethno-linguistic group of the Philippines. These protozoa parasites were detected from river, creek and water pumps using direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique. In situ measurement of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, and total dissolved solids of the water samples were done. From the 24 samples collected during the month of April 2017, seven samples were positive for Cryptosporidium (29%) and one sample was positive for Giardia (4.2%). The concentration of parasites were typically one to two (oo)cysts per 10 liters of water. The quality of water was generally acceptable for primary contact recreation, irrigation and livestock watering based on the standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the community is an important indicator of the occurring zoonosis in the community. This calls for a wider scale of the detection for waterborne protozoan parasites within the region before a possible outbreak could happen.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Giardia, indigenous community, river, Tuwali, zoonosis
Case report of congenital constriction ring of right thigh with impending amputation operated on day 1 of birth with linear excision

Case report of congenital constriction ring of right thigh with impending amputation operated on day 1 of birth with linear excision

Authors: Hardik Dodia
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Introduction: Congenital peripheral constriction ring originating from soft tissues of the leg that is characterized with compression in the soft tissue usually involving the deep fascia surrounding the leg at the time of birth is occasionally observed in lower extremity. At the region of the constriction, fractures of tibia and fibula and foot deformities like clubfoot can be observed. Case presentation: In our report, 1 day old neonate with congenital constriction band zone 1 grade 3 right side with ulceration in the local region and impending amputation presented to us. We operated it with linear excision technique, removed constriction and limb was salvaged. Conclusion: Congenital-constricting bands can be effectively released with linear excision. Linear excision is simple and very fast way of releasing constriction in high risk surgery cases.

Keywords: Emergency constriction ring surgery, Zone 1 Grade 3 constriction ring, Linear excision of constriction ring, constriction ring thigh, 1 day neonate constriction ring.
Hereditary angioedema – as Recurrent Allergic Manifestation

Hereditary angioedema – as Recurrent Allergic Manifestation

Authors: Manisha Rani
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

A 13 years old female child presented with complains of breathing difficulty with concurrent swelling of whole face and neck region. This presentation was preceded by mild trauma over lips only one day back. The injury was quite innocuous in nature. There was history of similar episodes in family. Family pedigree chart shows similar episodes in grandfather, uncle and two sisters of her father. She is only one affected out of four sisters in her family. Her father died with same problem 12 years back. Her C1-INH was assessed quantitatively and functionally. Her C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) level is normal in quantification assay but significantly below normal functionally. The case was diagnosed as a case of Hereditary angioedema disguising as recurrent allergic manifestations leading to anaphylactic reaction like feature. This condition does not respond to classical antihistaminics or steroids. This presentation further highlights significance of consideration of above mentioned condition in patient reporting for repeated allergic and anaphylactic reactions.

Keywords: hereditary angioedema, laryngeal edema, minor trauma, anaphylaxis.
Impulsivity among women with unintended pregnancy

Impulsivity among women with unintended pregnancy

Authors: Srinivas K
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem that affects women, their families and society. Abortion is a frequent consequence in the developing world and can result in serious long term negative health effects including maternal death.Aims:1.To assess impulsivity among women with unintended pregnancy2.To analyze the type of impulsivity among the study sample. Methodology: 47 pregnant women admitted to Vanivilas and Gosha hospitals with history of MTP pill abuse or for MTP were randomly selected and compared with 50 controls who came for regular ANC over a period of 2 months and a cross sectional observational study was done. Each patient was given Barratt’s impulsivity questionnaire after taking consent and assessed for impulsivity and the type. Results were analyzed using student t test or ANOVA accordingly.Results:47 cases were matched with 50 controls. 87% of the cases were found to be impulsive versus 20 % among controls, hence impulsive women are at 27.33 times higher risk of having unintended pregnancy, with a statistical significance p<0.05.The pattern of impulsivity among the cases was that , 40.5% were Non planning type(NP), 17% Attentional (AI), 21% Motor(MI), 8.5% mixed and 13% were non impulsive. While in the control group 2% were NP, 4% AI ,0 MI, 14% had mixed type, 80% were non impulsive. Conclusion: Women with higher levels of non planning impulsivity are significantly at a higher risk of having unintended pregnancies and its sequeale. Identifying this helps in implementation of psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy and contraception counselling as well.

Keywords: impulsivity, MTP pill abuse, non planning, unintended pregnancy
Follicular carcinoma of thyroid presenting as widespread metastases

Follicular carcinoma of thyroid presenting as widespread metastases

Authors: nupur rastogi
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common thyroid carcinoma accounting for 10-20 %of all thyroid malignancies, most commonly seen above 40 years of age. Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis is 11-20 %, usual presentation is asymptomatic solitary intrathyroid nodule. Its metastases is hematogenous, lung and bone are most commonly affected. Skull metastases is the unusual site of presentation. The present case of 60 year female presenting with skull , chest wall swelling, spine, lung metastases but asymptomatic thyroid lesion, is unusual.

Keywords: Follicular carcinoma, thyroid, skull & chest wall metastases.
Negative pressure assisted dressings: a game changer in wound care?

Negative pressure assisted dressings: a game changer in wound care?

Authors: Karan k Shetty
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Background: Wounds and their management is the cardinal groundwork for a surgical practice. Wound management has been an ever evolving field. The methods we employ currently are nowhere close to the time of inception of wound management. Negative pressure–assisted wound closure has brought a significant change in the management of wounds and has also improved the overall outcome. The present study is conducted to assess the efficacy of topical negative pressure moist wound dressing as compared to conventional moist wound dressings in revamping the healing process in chronic wounds and ulcers. Methods: A prospective randomised control study consisting 100 patients for the treatment of chronic wounds. They were randomly divided into two groups i.e. topical negative pressure moist dressing group and moist saline dressing for their wound. Follow up of wound was done in all cases and wound assessed depending on wound size, wound bed score, % of granulation tissue cover on first and second week for both the wound dressings group and a comparison was made between the two. Results: The most common cause of the ulcer was secondary to diabetes ( 42%).The percentage reduction of percentage of wound in the study group ( 19.52 ± 7.67), the mean difference in wound bed score and the percentage of granulation tissue formation ( 81.0 ±8.29) in the study group( 9.60 ±2.16) between presentation and subsequent follow-ups were statistically significant. Conclusions: The topical negative pressure dressing group was better in every way when compared to the conventional wound dressing group. It was also seen it is cost effective and overall hospital stay is less. It has and probably will continue to be a major influencer in the field of wound care.

Keywords: Wound care, negative pressure assisted dressings, vacuum assisted closure, wound bed score, chronic wounds, saline dressing.
Evaluation of interleukin-6 in non surgical periodontal therapy with & without laser: a clinico-biochemical study

Evaluation of interleukin-6 in non surgical periodontal therapy with & without laser: a clinico-biochemical study

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Sinha
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

The aim of this clinical trial was to examine the clinical and biochemical efficacy of diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). 30 subjects were selected on basis of inclusion criteria and were categorized into two groups. After selection of subjects, 15 patients were included under control group and 15 patients were included under test group randomly. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at baseline, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), component of gingival crevicular fluid were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Better outcome was observed in test group compared to control group in full-mouth clinical parameters. The total amount of IL-6 value was decreased (p<0.05) after treatment in both the test as well as the control groups (p<0.05). The Diode laser provided significant improvements in clinical parameters which showed its positive effect on non surgical periodontal therapy

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Gingival crevicular fluid, Interleukin-6, Diode laser
Prevalence of High and Low -level Mupirocin, resistance against MRSA from a tertiary care hospital in eastern UP

Prevalence of High and Low -level Mupirocin, resistance against MRSA from a tertiary care hospital in eastern UP

Authors: Vidyut Prakash
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Aim: To determine the prevalence of High and Low -level Mupirocin, resistance against MRSA from a tertiary care hospital in eastern UP was the aim of this study. Methods and Material: A total of 62 non duplicate previously confirmed MRSA isolates were included in this study. The Susceptibility testing andresult interpretation for determining the high and low level of mupirocin resistance was performed by disk diffusion method using 200 µg and 5 µg disc respectively as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 recommendations. Results: A total of 60 isolates (96.8 %) were found sensitive to mupirocin, 2 isolates (3.2 %) had low-level mupirocin resistance whereas none of the isolates was found to have high-level mupirocin resistance. Conclusion: The high-level mupirocin-resistant is uncommon in our patient population. The Periodic monitoring is useful for detecting changing trends in mupirocin resistance as a risk of emergence of high level mupirocin resistant strains is there.

Keywords: Mupirocin, MRSA, disk diffusion method.
Prevalence of cognitive impairment in urban elderly population and its association with their physical activity

Prevalence of cognitive impairment in urban elderly population and its association with their physical activity

Authors: S. Nanda Kumar
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Background: Cognitive deterioration is a part of normal physiological aging, but not everyone goes through a cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment (CI) ranges from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where mild cognitive impairment is a risk factor for dementia and is a transition between normal cognition and dementia. Therefore diagnosis of cognitive impairment at the early stage and early intervention is very crucial in order to delay dementia. Few studies shown that the delay can be achieved by a tailored exercise program and physical activity. Aim of the study: To determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and to evaluate its association with their physical activity level in the elderly population of urban Bangalore. Methodology: Cross-sectional study with sample size 175 older adults with 60 years and above. MoCA and PASE was administered and data was collected. Data analysis: Demographic data was summarized as the percentage for categorical variables and as median and IQ range for ordinal and non-normal continuous variables. Prevalence was described in percentage. Association between cognitive impairment and physical activity was assessed using Chi Square Test. Result: Data was analysed and found that prevalence of cognitive impairment in the elderly population of urban Bangalore was 58.9%. A significant association was found between cognitive impairment and physical activity (P=<0.01 with 95% CI).Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of cognitive impairment in the elderly population of urban Bangalore and it is strongly associated with the level of their physical activity.

Keywords: Prevalence, Cognitive impairment, Physical activity, MoCA, PASE
Toxicology: the blind spot

Toxicology: the blind spot

Authors: Sagar S Bhat
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Brief Background: On the 30th anniversary of Bhopal Gas Tragedy, we did a search to find out whether there is a subject called Dental Toxicology that is taught in Dental colleges. The result was there was no college in India which taught toxicology as subject or associated with Oral Medicine. The Bhopal gas tragedy is one of the worst chemical disasters where Methyl Isocyanide (MIC) had lethal short term consequences and serious long term toxicity, genetic instability, probable carcinogenicity, high degree of reproductive effects and teratogenicity. Any tragedy of this magnitude should have made any country sit up and take a vow to prevent any future such incidence in the industry.Discussion: In the field of dentistry normally many potential toxic chemicals are used often on the patients in prosthesis and tooth restoration. These include substances such as Amalgam, triclosan (proven carcinogen), methyl methacrylate, MERCURY, fluoride, polychlorinated biphenyls, BPA ,epoxy resins, composites, implants, artificial crowns etc., which may be toxic to human health, which may cause genetic mutations and even carcinogenic.Both FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale) and IAOMT (International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology) in 2013 positively support dentistry free of mercury to begin with, by either reducing mercury in a phased manner or totally Mercury Free Dentistry. Summary and Conclusion: The key areas are: Including the subject of TOXICOLOGY and mechanisms of toxicity not only in medical education but also in dentistry and anything connected to health sciences as a separate subject. This did not happen even after 30 years. With this paper we would like to highlight the potential toxic chemicals, alternative to such chemicals, Identification and how to avoid such toxicity in dentistry.Did Bhopal Tragedy wake us up as a country or is India in deep SLUMBER??

Keywords:
A comparative study of Staining characteristics of Leishman- Geimsa cocktail and Papanicolaou stain in Cervical Cytology

A comparative study of Staining characteristics of Leishman- Geimsa cocktail and Papanicolaou stain in Cervical Cytology

Authors: Ramana PV PV
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 3
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Abstract

Introduction: Papanicolaou(PAP) staining is commonly used for staining cervical cytology. Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a relatively new staining technique, is now being usedextensively in exfoliative cytology.Aims & Objective:To study and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy and reliability of LG cocktail in comparison with the PAP stain in exfoliated cells of cervical cytology. Materials &Method: Cross-sectional study conducted at department of pathology for 3 months.The pap smears were stained with LG and PAP stains. The smears were evaluated in terms of nuclear morphology,Cytoplasm and background and scored as per the criteria of Sujathanetal. Results: Sample size was 200 (100 pap stained and 100 LG cocktail stained).Both Cytoplasmic staining and Nuclear staining was better in LG. Background staining is more in LG Cocktail stain but was not obscuring the cell morphology. Conclusion: Papanicolaou staining is widely used technique but it has few limitations LG cocktail staining method is an easy, cost-effective and one-step technique that can be helpful in screening large number of cases in screening cervical cancers.

Keywords: Cervical cytology, Papanicolaou Stain, Leishman stain, Giemsastain , LG Cocktail

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