Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences

Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: IJPMR Publishing Press, India.
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/29

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine, Health and Wellness
  • Publisher's keywords: Medicine, Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 6 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2014
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '459' articles

Pain beliefs and affecting factors of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with hematological cancer

Pain beliefs and affecting factors of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with hematological cancer

Authors: Emine Derya Ister
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Aim: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the pain beliefs and affecting factors of the cancer patients subjected to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: The sample of the study was 94 hematologic cancer patients monitored and treated at the Gazi University Research and Application Hospital Stem Cell Transportation Unit. “Pain Beliefs Scale” and 33 questions prepared by the researcher by examining the literature were used as the data collection means. For the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, Kruskal–Wallis test, single-way variance analysis, and t-test in independent groups were used. Results: Organic belief score average of the patients under the study was found to be 3.8 ± 0.9 and psychological belief score average was found to be 4.7 ± 1.0. The organic belief scores of patients were high in married patients, while psychological beliefs were high in single patients. The pain beliefs were not affected by the age, education level, gender, working status, and pain severity (P > 0.05). However, the organic belief score average of the patients who agreed that cancer could cause pain was significantly high from the statistical point of view (P < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained from the study, nurses were recommended to assess the organic and psychological beliefs with respect to the cause of the pain of the patients suffering pain.

Keywords: Hematological cancer, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, nurse, pain beliefs
Evaluation of frequency, characteristics, and risk factors of neurotoxicity in patients on long-term amiodarone by nerve conduction studies

Evaluation of frequency, characteristics, and risk factors of neurotoxicity in patients on long-term amiodarone by nerve conduction studies

Authors: Paba Anish
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Amiodarone is an iodine-rich drug that is a highly effective and widely used as an antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of symptomatic supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Amiodarone is associated with many adverse effects that involve different organs. Incidence of neurologic problems like peripheral neuropathy has been reported after long-term usage of amiodarone. Aim of the Study: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the incidence of neurologic problems like peripheral neuropathy in patients on long-term medication with amiodarone. Materials and Methods: We carried a retrospective medical record analysis of cardiac patients treated with amiodarone at Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. 27 patients on long-term amiodarone therapy with neurologic problems were compared with 15 controls without neurological disease. Patients on whom nerve conduction studies and electromyography were performed after admission were selected. All possible neurologic adverse effects that might be attributable to amiodarone were recorded and tabulated. Results: Neurologic problems included tremor, gait ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. The primary risk factor for amiodarone neurotoxic effects was duration of treatment, not age, drug dose, sex, or indication for therapy. Conclusion: Amiodarone infrequently causes clinically significant neurologic toxic effects. Substantially higher estimates of neurotoxic effects in the early studies may be related to a much higher daily dose during those times.

Keywords:
Glomus Tumor of Digit: A Case Report

Glomus Tumor of Digit: A Case Report

Authors: Gaurav Mahesh Sharma
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Glomus tumors are one of the rare benign tumors accounting for <2% of all the soft tissue tumors in the body with a female propensity and more commonly seen in digits. We report a case of glomus tumor in a 34-year-old female with excruciating pain and mild swelling over distal phalanx of left ring finger which was initially missed for 8 months. The diagnosis was made clinically and confirmed histopathologically after thorough exploration and excision. The present case describes a rare but not uncommon tumor which can be diagnosed clinically with an excellent prognosis and immediate symptomatic relief.

Keywords: Distal phalanx, glomus tumor, soft tissue tumor
Housing features and household access to sanitation facilities in a rural Nigerian community

Housing features and household access to sanitation facilities in a rural Nigerian community

Authors: Alphonsus O. Aigbiremolen
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Good housing and adequate sanitation are linked as both are important in disease prevention and the overall promotion of health and well-being of man including residents in rural communities. This study was carried out to examine household access to sanitation facilities in Usugbenu, a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria, and to determine what relationship exist between household characteristics and use of such facilities in the study area. Cluster sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 399 households from the community, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS with statistical significance level set at P ≤ 0.05. The most common family type was the nuclear family (62.7%); the most common housing unit type was flat/bungalow (57.1%); and the owner-occupier status was 73%. Block/brick wall houses were 63.4% while the common sources of water for household use were sachet water (30.1%), rainwater (28.8%), and borehole (20.1%). Pit toilets were used in 71.7% of households while sharing of toilet facilities occurred in 29.1% of households. Significant factors associated with the use of non-shared toilet facilities in this study were higher (secondary/tertiary) level of education, inherited or self-owned house, and brick/blockhouse wall type. Factors that compromise sanitation such as poor access to domestic water supply and sharing of toilet facilities were prevalent in the community.

Keywords: Household, housing features, rural community, sanitation, water supply
Estimating and comparing the trends of fertility pattern from various birth cohorts in rural hilly population of Uttarakhand

Estimating and comparing the trends of fertility pattern from various birth cohorts in rural hilly population of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ankit Singh
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Nuptiality and fertility are often studied together because nuptiality affects fertility. If childbearing tends to be confined to married couples, as it is in many societies, higher proportion of women marrying will tend to higher fertility and vice versa. Population change may, therefore, be indirectly influenced by nuptiality. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the fertility status of women with age group of 17–86 years among seven different cohorts. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted through predesigned questionnaire in the Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. The subjects of the study were the local residents of selected hilly rural areas of Dehradun. Women, who were ever married and unmarried, born in between 1931 and 2000. The study has been approved by the ethics committee of the university. Informed consent in the local language has been taken from subjects during filling predesigned questionnaire. Results: The results of the study show trend in the home delivery have been observed to be declining with the respective birth cohorts. The trend in the data for the respective factors gravida and parity is observed to be decreasing at consecutive cohorts. The results also show differentials between gravida and parity according to religion. It shows that religion shows statistically significant between gravida and parity. The cohort 1931-1940 and 1971-1980 shows highly significant according to religion in gravida. In parity, cohort 1961-1970 and 1981-1990 also shows highly significant value according to religion. Conclusion: The maternal health policies in developing countries such as India should be viewed as central goals together with achievement of MDG-5 targets. The enormous imbalances in maternity care underline the requirement for successful arrangement of administrations.

Keywords: Fertility, gravidity, parity, rural population
Glimpse into the electrocardiographic changes in patients of anemia at a younger age: A hospital-based observational study

Glimpse into the electrocardiographic changes in patients of anemia at a younger age: A hospital-based observational study

Authors: Kallol Bhattacharjee
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Introduction: Anemia is a major health problem in developing countries and even the developed countries are also not spared from its effect. The heart is one of the main organs affected by ill effects of anemia. Due to decreased O2 carrying capacity in anemia, myocardium suffers from supply-demand mismatch, leading to myocardial ischemia or infarction. In view of cardiac involvement in anemia, studies have been done to evaluate electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in anemia. The ECG changes commonly seen are sinus tachycardia, ST segment depression, T wave inversion, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), but there are various discrepancies in the findings of different studies. It is observed that ECG changes are also correlated to the severity of anemia. Aims and Objective: To study the ECG of the patients presenting with anemia and to correlate same with severity of anemia. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based prospective observational study conducted on 80 patients at the Department of Medicine, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Resting ECG and other routine investigations were done in all cases. Results: In patients with severe anemia, 89.4% of patients had tachycardia, 36.8% had ST segment depression, 31.6% had T wave inversion, and 15.7% had LVH. In patients with moderate anemia, 86.9% of patients had tachycardia, 43.5% had ST segment depression, 17.4% had t wave inversion, and 34.8% had LVH. In patients with mild anemia, 26.3% of patients had tachycardia, none had ST segment depression or t wave inversion, whereas 7.9% of patients presented with LVH.

Keywords: Anemia, electrocardiographic, heart, hemoglobin, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardium, sinus tachycardia, ST segment depression
Ethanol leaves extract of Mangifera indica (L.) exhibits protective, antioxidative, and antidiabetic effects in rats

Ethanol leaves extract of Mangifera indica (L.) exhibits protective, antioxidative, and antidiabetic effects in rats

Authors: J.A Badmas
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: Many orthodox drugs used for treatment of diabetes have shown reported deleterious side effects. This study investigates the effects of ethanol leaves extract ofMangiferaindica(L) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats as an attempt to investigate herbal remedy. Methods: Male Wistar rats treated for fifteen days with average weight of 150g were randomlyselected into seven groups; 1(controls, received normal saline),2 (Alloxan-induced diabetic rats, 400mg/kg.bw subcutaneously),3 (Diabetic rats treated with extract,100mg/kg.bw),4 ( Diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide,5mg/kg.bw),5 (Diabetic rats treated with combination of extract and glibenclamide),6 ( extract only),7 (glibenclamide only).Biochemical and anti-oxidant indices were determined with standardized methods. Results: Results from indices studied revealed that alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant(p<0.05) increases in fasting blood sugar concentrations, white blood cell counts, lymphocytes counts, platelets counts, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver malondialdehyde levels and percentage DNA fragmentation with corresponding decreases in serum total protein concentrations,red blood cell counts,high density lipoprotein concentrations and liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Howeverin diabetic rats treated with extract(Group 3),levels and activities of these markers werereversed significantly and comparativelywith the standard drug (Group 4). Conclusions: These findings indicatepossible anti-oxidative,anti-diabetic,hypoglycemic,hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of the extract and or a synergistic interaction with the standard drug .

Keywords: Alloxan, Anti-diabetic, Anti-oxidative,Hepatoprotective,MangiferaIndica (L)
Spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India

Spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Pankaj Gupta
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders of hemoglobin (Hb). Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically, and they can be prevented by population screening. Inherited abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis include a myriad of disorders ranging from thalassemia syndromes to structurally abnormal hemoglobin variants. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and aid in prevention of more serious hemoglobin disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in the state of Madhya Pradesh. In this study, the hemoglobinopathies were detected by fully automated electrophoretic Apparatus of Interlab Genio S. Materials and Methods: In our study, screening of all anemia cases was done initially by clinical history including family history, cast, and ethnicity of the patients. All cases were subjected to physical examination, a blood count and peripheral blood examination. In addition, sickle cell phenomenon and alkali denaturation for fetal Hb were also carried out. The more confirmatory test by Cellulose Acetate Membrane electrophoresis at alkaline pH (CAM) was followed in all cases of suspected hemolytic anemia. Results: The study confirmed that hemoglobinopathies were prevalent in 10.17% in a cohort of anemic patients. Prevalence of sickle cell b thalassemia was 4.33%, sickle cell trait 1.50%, b thalassemia trait 2.44%, sickle cell disease 0.94%, and b thalassemia major 0.94% was observed. The prevalence of sickle cell-b thalassemia was significantly higher and prevalence of sickle cell disease and b thalassemia major was equal and lowest. Conclusion: This study provides for the first time comprehensive databases on the spectrum and pattern of hemoglobinopathies in a rural tertiary care center. Significance of these observations has been discussed, and necessity for extensive survey work with improved techniques in future is proposed.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, hemoglobinopathy, hemolytic anemia, sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait, thalassemia
Estimating the prevalence of dry eye among patients attending a tertiary ophthalmology clinic in Eastern India

Estimating the prevalence of dry eye among patients attending a tertiary ophthalmology clinic in Eastern India

Authors: Suman Adhikari
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 1
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Abstract

Background: Dry eye disease is a common multifactorial problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. Keeping all these facts in mind, the present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of the problem reigning in this region. The present study was done to determine the prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostic test of dry eye disease in symptomatic patients attending the outpatient Department (OPD) of Ophthalmology, Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College and L.S.K. Hospital, Kishanganj, Bihar. Materials and Methods: An effort was made to formulate a better approach for diagnosis and management of dry eye. In this hospital-based study, patients of aged >20 years and both sexes presenting with symptoms related to dry eye were subjected to a detailed history taking and a thorough ocular examination under a slit lamp biomicroscope. Then, a series of objective dry eye test was conducted in the following sequence: Tear meniscus height, tear break-up time test fluorescein staining, Schirmer’s I test, and rose Bengal staining. Results: The prevalence of dry eye in the ophthalmology OPD, Mata Gujri Memorial Medical College, Kishanganj, was found to be 52%. The prevalence of dry eye increased progressively with age having a peak in the age group >70 years was 11.4%. The prevalence of dry eye was found to be higher in females (31.2%) than in males (20.8%). A higher prevalence of dry eye was found in rural residents (36%) than in urban dwellers (16%). Conclusion: Dry eye is an increasingly prevalent multifactorial condition. Subjective symptoms of dryness can hide diseases other than dry eye. Hence, combined clinical and laboratory tests are required to make a diagnosis coupled with a proper understanding of the subject. The prevalence of dry eye falls within the range of previous reported studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to racial or environmental factors. More research is needed to delve into the causes of dry eye to have a proper overview of the existing problem to enable the development of new treatments with promising effectiveness.

Keywords: Dry eye, Eastern India, objective dry eye tests, prevalence, symptoms
Anaesthesia for emergency exploratory Laparotomy in a Patient with undiagnosed Thyrotoxicosis: A Case Report

Anaesthesia for emergency exploratory Laparotomy in a Patient with undiagnosed Thyrotoxicosis: A Case Report

Authors: Onyegbule Okubuiro Eze
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

OF, a 25-year-old female with a history of 3 previous unsuccessful pregnancies was referred from a peripheral hospital with a diagnosis of ectopic gestation. She had a thyroid swelling. Initial pulse rate and blood pressure were 168 beats per minute and 130/90 mmHg respectively. She was premedicated with oral atenolol 100 mg on suspicion of undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis and pulse rate and blood pressure dropped to 110 beats per minute and 100/60 mmHg respectively. A right salpingectomy was carried out under endotracheal anaesthesia with muscle relaxation.A thyroid function test done postoperatively revealed a raised T3 and T4 with reduced thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). She had a successful recovery and was discharged home. Issues and anaesthetic management challenges specific to patients with undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis coming for emergency surgery are discussed.

Keywords: Anaesthesia, emergency, laparotomy, thyrotoxicosis, ectopic-pregnancy
The Relation between The Knowledge and Attitudes of Female Students Regarding Gynecological Cancer Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

The Relation between The Knowledge and Attitudes of Female Students Regarding Gynecological Cancer Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

Authors: Mine Bekar
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: This cross sectional study has been conducted to determine the relationship between the knowledge and attitude of female students regarding gynecological cancer prevention and healthy lifestyle behaviors (HLB). Method: The sample of the study included 802 female students living in Cumhuriyet University Higher Education Student Loan and Housing Board Dormitory in the 2014-2015 school years. The data was collected by interviewing participants via “Personal Information Form”, “Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale” and “Knowledge Assessment Form on Gynecological Cancer Prevention”. Results:Among the students participating in this study 20.9 % were in Faculty of Health Sciences. The mean age of the sample was 20.71 ± 1.68. There were statistically significant differences between the health responsibility, physical exercise, nutrition and stress management subscales of HLB and the status of undergoing gynecological examination (p < 0.05). A linear positive correlation of 17.2 % was found between the total scores of participants in HLB scale and in gynecological cancer prevention (p = 0.000 α = 0.01). The difference between HLB scale scores and the knowledge scores on gynecological cancer prevention (KSGCP) was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000 < 0.05). The total scores of female students in HLB scale increased in parallel with their mean knowledge scores on gynecological cancer prevention. Conclusion: Health promotion and gynecological cancer prevention might be possible by imposing HLB to the university students. It is suggested that the knowledge levels of students on HLB and gynecological cancer prevention should be identified and that they should be both trained and consulted within this framework.

Keywords: Female Students in the University, Healthy Lifestyle Behavior, Gynecological Cancer, Gynecological Cancer Prevention, Knowledge, Attitude.
A Comparative Study of Racedrotril and Single Dose Octreotide in Acute Diarrhoea

A Comparative Study of Racedrotril and Single Dose Octreotide in Acute Diarrhoea

Authors: Raghavendar Reddy gundepalli
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

To assess the efficacy of single dose of octreotide and compare it with another antisecretory agent racecadotril in the management of acute infective diarrhoea. A Randomised control study was carried out on the acute diarrhoeal disease patients who were admitted to the Department of General Medicne at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Tamaka, Kolar. 90 patients (≥ 18 years of age) with moderate to severe acute diarrheal illness of less than 5 days duration were randomly allotted into 3 treatment categories of 30 patients each with the help of random number table method after taking written informed consent from them. The control group received only fluids and antibiotics, the racecadotril group received fluid, antibiotics and oral racecadotril at dose of 1.5 mg/kg three times a day. The octreotide group received octreotide (100 microgram stat at the time of hospitalization) along with fluid and antibiotics. Fluid was given according to the severity of dehydration. Intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were given to all the patients. A detailed history and clinical examination was done in all patients. Routine blood investigations and stool examination was carried out. All the patients in the three groups were matched for age and sex. 81.1% of patients (73/90) were males and majority of them belonged to 25-44 age group. 74.4% of them (67/90) belonged to Lower Class as per Modified B G Prasads Classification. 47 out 90 were from Rural Area. This study results have shown that provide that Octreotide is an effective treatment for acute infective diarrhoea in adults who were admitted and were of unknown etiology. As compared with the control and Racecadotril groups, the Octreotide group had clinically consistent and significant results with respect to the Duration of diarrhoea, Stool Volume and Fluid requirement for the management.

Keywords: Study, Diarrhoea, Fluid, Bacteria, Dehydration
Current status and the importance of basic life support training in Turkey and the World

Current status and the importance of basic life support training in Turkey and the World

Authors: GÜLTEKİN T
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

The aim of this review is to present the current status and importance of basic life support training in Turkey and the world. Basic Life Support (BLS) is a set ofbasic life-saving proceduresperformed after cardiac arrest. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of mortality in many countries today. In 2015, 31% (17.7 million) of all deaths worldwide were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Healthcare personnel constitute an important group in increasing the survival rate after cardiopulmonary arrest. However, studies have shown that healthcare personnel in many countries are not sufficiently capable in BLS application. In the USA, nurses are required to receive BLS training. In addition, in many countries with advanced emergency medicine systems, education of the public in this topic is emphasized. In Switzerland, 19% of the country's population is trained and certified for BLS. Prioritized education of the young population and especially the education of the relatives of cardiac patients is also emphasized. It has been shown that in incidents where the response time of healthcare personnel exceeds four minutes, BLS practiced by witnesses at the scene directly influences survival rates. In terms of BLS applications, survival rates will increase as more and more people are included in training programs. Therefore, there is a need for training programs that are easier to access, effective and repeatable. Keywords:

Keywords: Basic life support, current status, training.
Our Results of Genetic Mutation Analysis in Lung Cancer

Our Results of Genetic Mutation Analysis in Lung Cancer

Authors: Sule Karabulut Gul
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: Molecular pathways thought to be effective in carcinogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), new agents have developed in cancer cells against specific targets on these molecular pathways. We wanted to determine the genetic mutation analyzes of our patients before treatment begins and to see the genetic mutation data of our country. Materials and Methods: The pathology results of 680 patients with NSCLC were evaluated (between 2015-2017). Mutation detection and EGFR mutation analysis were performed by real time PCR method. For gene translocation detection: by using specific a probe to Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene molecules, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangement tests were performed. Results: 542 patients had adenocarcinoma (79.7%), and 138 patients (21.3%) had non-adeno associated NSCLC pathology. The EGFR mutation was found in 651 patients, 75 (11.5%) were positive and were mutant. ALK was found to be positive in 11 patients (2.25%) in 488 patients. ROS was evaluated in 393 patients and in 4 patients (1.01%) it was evaluated as positive. Conclusion: The most common mutations for adenocarcinoma occur with EGFR, ALK, and ROS 1 gene rearrangements. Unlike literature data, we found that 3 mutations were higher than the literature in terms of age and smoking rates were higher in cases with EGFR mutation. Genomic examination should be performed in non-adeno NSCLC, especially in non-smokers. With high number of cases and having a mosaic of the country, our study is important to share.

Keywords: cancer, treatment, genetic mutation.
Transition in Incidence and Age at diagnosis of Tobacco Related Cancers in South India

Transition in Incidence and Age at diagnosis of Tobacco Related Cancers in South India

Authors: Preethi Sara George
Year: 2018, Volume: 5, Number: 4
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Abstract

Objective: To elucidate the impacts in incidence and shift in the age at diagnosis of tobacco related cancers (TRC) in south India after launching the national strategic action plan in India Methods: We analysed data of south Indian cancer registries, age-standardised rates (ASR)to estimate annual percentage changes (APC) and transition by gender and region using Join point regression. Results: Over the 25-year period, among men Trivandrum registry showed a significantly increasing trend by 0.9%, while among women, Chennai showed a decreasing trend by -1.3% annually. Lung cancer incidence trends changed significantly among women, increased by 2.3% per year from 1991-1998 and by 7.8% from 1998-2012 in Trivandrum. Rising trends for lung cancer was observed. Mouth cancer incidence declined significantly among men, APC shows a decreasing trend by 2.6% per year from 1991-2003 and by 1.8% from 2003-2012 in Trivandrum while rising trends showed in Kollam, Bengaluru and Chennai. Conclusion: Evidence showed decline in incidence rate of some TRCs. Gender and region disparities in incidence remain. Younger age shift in the age at incidence of TRC is alarming. The findings suggest that comprehensive cancer control efforts, evidence-based tobacco control interventions, are needed to reduce tobacco use and cancer burden in India.

Keywords: age-specific cancer incidence rates; age-standardized cancer incidence rates; age at diagnosis; epidemiologic transition; tobacco-related cancers.

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