International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences

Basic info

  • Publisher: Science Explorer Publications
  • Country of publisher: united kingdom
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/14

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Public Health and Community Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Health
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2010
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: LOCKSS, CLOCKSS
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '2581' articles

DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION OF IMPROVED MAIZE VARIETIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW

DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION OF IMPROVED MAIZE VARIETIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW

Authors: BINOD KAFLE| Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Outreach Research Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal, PO Box: 3605, Kathmandu
( 78 downloads)
Abstract

This paper provides a synopsis on various studies conducted on adoption of improved maize varieties in developing countries, particularly Africa and South Asia, during last fifteen years. The studies have pointed out a number of socio-economic characteristics, agro-ecological variables, and farmers’ perception as important determinants of improved maize varieties in different countries. Among these variables, extension contact, education, farm size, credit availability, use of fertilizer, low land area, yield and profitability are found to be major determinants which have strong positive influences. The adoption studies are found more focused to socio-economic variables in comparison to agro-ecological variables and farmers’ perception. Researchers are suggested to consider these variables as important as the socioeconomic variables in any adoption studies of agricultural innovations.

Keywords: adoption, socio-economic variables, agro-ecological zone, perception
EFFECTS OF MICRONUTRIETNS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE IN ACIDIC SOIL

EFFECTS OF MICRONUTRIETNS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE IN ACIDIC SOIL

Authors: BISHNU HARI ADHIKARY| National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Rampur,Chitwan, Nepal, JIBAN SHRESTHA| Natio...
( 77 downloads)
Abstract

Micronutrients are trace elements which are needed by the maize crop in small amounts and play an active role in the plant metabolic functions in shortage of which show deficiency symptoms and crop yields are reduced, they are therefore to be added into the soil before crop planting or applied directly to the crop to increase maize productivity. In order to evaluate the effects of micronutrients (B, Zn, Mo, S and Mn) on the grain production of maize (var. Rampur Composite), series of field experiments were conducted during the winter season of three consecutive years (2007 to 2009) in the acidic soil condition (5.1 pH) at National maize Research Programme (NMRP), Rampur. Plant growth and yield parameters were studied. Results of the experiments revealed that the treatments had significant effect on studied parameters. Three years yield data following combined analysis indicated a sharp response of treatments on grain production and was observed to be highly significant, however, the response on the maize grain production among the micronutrient treated plots was observed small (5.43- 5.99 t/ha of grains) except with the crop that lacked sulphur nutrient (4.71 t/ha). The highest grain yield (5.99 t/ha) was recorded with the crop which was supplied with all micronutrients (B, Zn, S, Mn and Mo applied in combination with NPK fertilizers at 120:60 40 kg /ha which produced almost 171 % higher grain yield than those with control plot (2.21 t/ha) and 1.48 t/ha of additional grains over NPK treated crop. It is suggested to apply micronutrients along with recommended dose of fertilizers in the acidic soils of Chitwan.

Keywords: Combined analysis, correlation, grain yield, significant effect and Zea mays L.
EXPLORING DIVERSITY AMONG FARMERS IN ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION AND OPTIONS FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEM-A CASE STUDY OF AMBEDKARNAGER DISTRICT OF UP

EXPLORING DIVERSITY AMONG FARMERS IN ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION AND OPTIONS FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEM-A CASE STUDY OF AMBEDKARNAGER DISTRICT OF UP

Authors: GHUNCHA FIRDAUS| Post-doctorate Fellow,Deptt. of Geography, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., ATEEQUE AHMAD| Professor,Dep...
( 75 downloads)
Abstract

Smallholder farmers occupy a prominent position in Indian agriculture. Against the background of increasing fragmentation of landholdings, these farmers are facing the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of socio-economic and political constraints. Consequently, every day a massive stream of rural people are migrating to urban centres. A sustainable and dynamic approach to smallholder farmers’ deplorable condition is a matter of great concern and priority for discourse for balanced social development. This study, based on cross-sectional survey of 1243 farm households to assess the cropping pattern, off farm activities of the farmers, and their adoption to agricultural innovations. Employed a stepwise multiple linear regression model to identify which factors and to what extent influence the adoption bahaviour of farmers. The results demonstrate nearly 98% positive influences of size of land holding, economic condition, education and farm ownership on adoption behaviour of farmers. The study also reveals that fragmented landholdings are major hindrance in adoption process. Diversification of agriculture in favour of high-value commodities is suggested for sustainable development of smallholder farmers.

Keywords: Small holder farmer, Ambedkarnagar, Adoption of innovation, Agriculture
ROLE OF STOCKING DENSITY AND ABIOTIC FACTORS OF POND ON PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MONOGENETIC GILL PARASITES IN FARMED ROHU, LABEO ROHITA (HAMILTON) -A STUDY

ROLE OF STOCKING DENSITY AND ABIOTIC FACTORS OF POND ON PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MONOGENETIC GILL PARASITES IN FARMED ROHU, LABEO ROHITA (HAMILTON) -A STUDY

Authors: HIMADRI SAHA| Department of Fish Health and Environment, College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural University, Lembucherra, Post Box No. 60, Agartala...
( 78 downloads)
Abstract

In farm, monogenean infection occur by mixed species and here occurrence and distribution of monogenetic gill parasites were studied with an objective to evaluate the potentiality of monogeneans to propagate in farmed Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita) under different stocking density (low, medium and high). Sampling of water and fish was done fortnightly and soil sample on monthly basis for about six months. Four species of monogeneans were observed. Pond with highest stocking density showed 100% prevalence throughout the period and rest showed sporadic as well as no infection pattern. Study of spatial distribution showed 1st, 2nd and 3rd gill arches had higher distribution of monogeneans than the 4th one. The posterior section of each gill arch had maximum monogenean intensity as compared to the anterior one. The mean intensity of parasites was significantly greater in higher size class of rohu. Dissolved oxygen and soil organic carbon show significant (p>0.05 and p>0.01) positive correlation with parasite intensity and prevalence respectively. The results suggest that the propagation of gill monogeneans is positively influenced by higher stocking density, organic load and dissolved oxygen and these factors don’t influence their distribution pattern in gills.

Keywords: Monogenean, Propagation, Stocking density, Rohu (Labeo rohita), Abiotic factors
WEB-BASED DISTANCE EDUCATION: OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

WEB-BASED DISTANCE EDUCATION: OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Authors: SAFA FARROKHI*| Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran., MOHAMAD CHIZARI| Department of...
( 76 downloads)
Abstract

This exploratory research was carried out to identify opportunities and threats of developing web-based distance education in Iranian higher education system using Delphi method. Classification of the opinion of panelists suggested main opportunities as followings: ever-increasing demands for this kind of educational system; alleviating brain drains; possibility of extending the system across the country; balanced and quick distribution of information; extending the international relations by universities; faster feedback system; Also, The most important threatening impediments include the followings: looking at this kind of educational system as a business; poor delivery system; those how disseminate the education are not competent; low relative rate of computer literacy; decreasing the social relations.

Keywords: drought, summer season and grain yield
A DELPHI OF EXPERT PERCEPTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING ELECTRONIC COMMERCE FOR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS

A DELPHI OF EXPERT PERCEPTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING ELECTRONIC COMMERCE FOR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS

Authors: SAFA FARROKHI| Department of agricultural extension and education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran., MOHAMMAD CHIZA...
( 78 downloads)
Abstract

The objective of the study was to identify the major problems facing Electronic Commerce (EC) implementation in horticultural products. To accomplish this objective the Delphi method of obtaining group consensus was employed. The study used a series of four mailed questionnaires. The first round of the study used a questionnaire with an open ended question. In the second questionnaire, respondents were asked to rate the items identified in round one on a five-point Likert-type scale. In the third round, panel members were asked to indicate the importance of problems from round two, and to provide comments if they could not agree with the summary findings. The fourth and final round produced consensus on 46 of the problems from round three. The major problems identified by the Delphi method in the EC implementation in horticultural products were : E-government growth( E-banking, Etransactions, E-insurance, E-customs), telecommunication infrastructures, quantity and quality of advertising, perceived opportunities, managerial skills, political pressures on economy, economic stability, electronic banking infrastructures, unity of directing, entrepreneurship culture and resistance to change.

Keywords: Delphi method, Electronic commerce, Horticultural products, Perception, Problem
INFLUENCE OF PLANTING DEPTH ON GROWTH, FLOWER PRODUCTION AND BULB YIELD OF THE COMMON HYACINTH AND THE LILY

INFLUENCE OF PLANTING DEPTH ON GROWTH, FLOWER PRODUCTION AND BULB YIELD OF THE COMMON HYACINTH AND THE LILY

Authors: ADDAI, I. K| Flat 38F, Park Village, Sussex University, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RD (Current address), or The Agronomy Department, UDS, P. O. Box 1350,...
( 75 downloads)
Abstract

Greenhouse pot studies were conducted at the University of Sussex, UK to determine the effects of planting depth on growth, flower quality and bulb yield of two ornamental geophytes, hyacinth and the lily. Bulbs were planted at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm depths from soil surface in plastic pots filled with compost and perlite mixture in a ratio of 2:1 by volume, and the units arranged on greenhouse benches using randomised complete block design. Results indicated that the deeper the depth of planting, the longer it took the bulbs to emerge from the soil after planting. The delay in emergence as a result of deep planting of bulbs gave rise to reduced growth, poor flower quality and reduction in bulb yield at harvest. Plants produced from shallow planting had competitive advantage in terms of acquisition of resources for growth, and were characterised by higher growth rate, whilst those from deep planting had prolonged life cycle which resulted in a delay in above-ground senescence. Too shallow planting of bulbs compelled the bulbs to pull themselves down into deeper ground, but once plants were at this unfavourable depth in the soil, they lacked any mechanism for raising themselves in the soil profile. In general, planting at the 5 cm depth gave the best performance, but in the case of hyacinth, bulbs could also be planted at the 0 cm depth (bulbs placed on soil surface) for optimum growth and to ensure good flower quality, but for the lily, planting at the 0 cm should be discouraged as planting at this depth this will lead to the death of the bulb.

Keywords: Hyacinth, lily, plant growth, flower quality, planting depth, bulb yield at harvest
ISOLATION AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF SOME GENES INVOLVED IN STARCH METABOLISM OF THE COMMON HYACINTH

ISOLATION AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF SOME GENES INVOLVED IN STARCH METABOLISM OF THE COMMON HYACINTH

Authors: ADDAI, I. K*| Flat 38F, Park Village, Sussex University, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RD (Current address), or The Agronomy Department, UDS, P. O. Box 1350,...
( 80 downloads)
Abstract

Studies were conducted at the University of Sussex on the common hyacinth with a view to isolating and sequencing some of the genes that govern starch metabolism in this geophyte. Results indicated that the sequence generated for starch phosphorylase from hyacinth was similar to the sequences of this enzyme from a number of plants, but that of sweet potato was the closest in terms of similarity. In fact, this sequence is well conserved, and is identical at the protein level to that of sweet potato. The sequence generated for starch synthase, however, was similar to the starch synthase sequence from Sorghum bicolour. The sequences generated from this study could be used to redesign primers which could have been used to get bigger part of the gene from hyacinth DNA. The inserts could be used to probe a hyacinth genomic library to get the whole genes or to design primers which could be used for RT-PCR analysis to investigate the expression of these genes.

Keywords: Hyacinth, Starch metabolism genes, Isolation and sequence analysis, Conserved domains, Primer design, Starch phosphorylase
AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) SEED OIL AS ADJUVANT FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) SEED OIL AS ADJUVANT FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Authors: CHINDO IY*| Chemistry Programme Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria, OSUIDE JO| Chemistry Programme Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,...
( 76 downloads)
Abstract

In this study, Neem oil, soap and a combination of neem oil neem oil soap and some already existing antimicrobial drugs, lamisil and whitfield oil (1:1 and 2:1v/v) were tested on cultured samples of bacteria and fungi. Neem oil was found to be inactive against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trychophyton tonsurans on its own but significantly increased the activity of lamisil and whitfield ointments when combined with them. Neem soap also showed some activity against the two samples of fungi. Neem oil showed considerable activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. It was observed that, the combination of neem oil and other known antimicrobial drug was more effective in the inhibition of the growth of these bacteria. Neem oil on its own may not elicit the desired activity but a mixture of neem oil and other medicinal compounds could reduce the fatality of microbial infections.

Keywords: Antifungal, Stale neem oil, Neem oil, Neem soap, Kernel
IN-SILICO STUDIES OF INDIAN CATFISH: AN UPDATE

IN-SILICO STUDIES OF INDIAN CATFISH: AN UPDATE

Authors: SURAJIT DEBNATH| Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Women,s Polytechnic, Govt. of Tripura Hapania,P.O:Amtali via Sekerkot,Tripura (W).PIN:79...
( 83 downloads)
Abstract

Computational analysis of nucleic acids and proteins from fishes has enriched our understanding of several fundamental problems in classical fish biology and genetics. Mining of data which is analogous to information discovery is the process of automating knowledge discovery. Analysis of data in all possible manners and recognition of a pattern which has a scientific basis using an efficient algorithm is the fundamental principle of Bioinformatics. Ever-increasing number of Bioinformatics tools and computational packages are now a days used in tandem to analyze sequence of a loci and to model a novel gene product. High efficiency algorithms with excellent homology searching functions have lead to this advancement. Cat fishes, a group of diverse bony fishes have been studied with respect to genetic analysis in several species and with several peptides. Tracking of the evolutionary foot prints using genomic libraries and among the expressed sequences has been generating much interest. Recent development in bioinformatics research in catfishes needs a comprehensive review to develop text for the academia as well as the industry for ready reconer to use and maximize potential of already developed tools and software packages. Identifying the sectors where catfish bioinformatics necessitate further research is also needed.

Keywords: In-silico biology, Applications, Tropical, Catfish, Genetic diversity
A CONCEPTUAL LOGISTIC SYSTEM FOR PRIVATE ENTERPRISE

A CONCEPTUAL LOGISTIC SYSTEM FOR PRIVATE ENTERPRISE

Authors: MAHMOOD NOORAIE| Department of Management, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran.
( 80 downloads)
Abstract

The concept of the logistic system and technology of logistics have made substantial advances in decades since World War II. Today, logistics is a word that sounds scientific; however, there is still some area where much of the population prefers to live close to the production area in order to obtain their requirements. A business firm is essentially an open system. It receives input from external sources, uses and processes this input, and finally produces an output that to some extent changes the environment. A logistic system--as a sub system of the business enterprise-handles the flow of input toward the process and the flow of output toward the customer, according to plan and with minimal cost. This study introduces perspectives of the business logistics system. It describes the concept of logistics and identifies the fundamental logistics considerations and its elements. This study proposes a conceptual logistic system that can present logistics structures, functions, and responsibilities. Hopefully, it can provide a way of thinking that will eventually help the reader recognize the scope of the logistics organizations and its important roles. There are several basic elements in the logistics system of a business firm. Business logistics as a system operates according to some basic elements. However, these elements have been defined differently by different authors. The intent here was to indicate those actual factors that comprise a logistics system. These factors, which have been high lighted by other authors as well, are composed of: forecasting to eventually determine the firm's overall requirements, procurement, storage, transportation, material handling, packaging, and customer service.

Keywords: Logistic, Inventory, Forecasting, Procurement, Storage, Transportation
EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF QUERCUS PERSICA

EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF QUERCUS PERSICA

Authors: EBRAHIMI AKRAM*| Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Izeah, Khozestan, Iran., KHAYAMI MASOUD| Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, U...
( 76 downloads)
Abstract

Quercus persica is one of the four species oak growing in the zagrossian region of Iran. This plant contains different components of therapeutic value. In this investigation, antibacterial and wound healing effects of methanolic extract of fruits of Quercus persica has been studied. Milled oak fruit that their hull was separated, extracted with methanol in Soxhles apparatus .The effect of extract in three concentration(25,50,75mg/ml) were tested using agar diffusion method on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis RTCC 1898 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in form topical administration on excision wound in rats.Results showed that all of concentrations were effective on inhibition of bacteria, but this effect with 50 and 75 mg/ml concentration of extract was significant for bacteria.Also in comparison with tested antibiotics, the effect of 75 mg/ml concentration of extract was similar or higher than them. Also in the extract-treated wounds indicated that epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased in comparison to control wounds.This results suggest that Quercus persica possesses compounds with antibacterial and wound healing properties.

Keywords: Qurcus persica, Antibacterial, Extract, Wound healing
GINKGO (GINKGO BILOBA L.), A MEDICINAL TREE

GINKGO (GINKGO BILOBA L.), A MEDICINAL TREE

Authors: SHAHRAM SHARAFZADEH| Department of Agriculture, Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Iran
( 71 downloads)
Abstract

Ginkgo biloba is a member of family Ginkgoaceae. The ginkgo tree, known to be among the oldest living species on this planet, has flourished in forests for over 150 million years and hence it is called a “living fossil”. The best growing conditions are found on deep sandy and well-drained soils. Active substances are predominantly produced in the roots and then translocated to the leaves. The two main pharmacologically active groups of compounds present in the ginkgo leaf extract are the flavonoids and the terpenoids. Standard Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains 22-27% flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and 5-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides). The extract of ginkgo uses in the treatment of poor circulation, heart disease, eye disease, short term memory loss, brain trauma and depression.

Keywords: Ginkgo, Medicinal plants, Active substances, Ginkgolides, Bilobalides
INVESTIGATION OF SEED GERMINATION IN THE TRANSGENIC CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS

INVESTIGATION OF SEED GERMINATION IN THE TRANSGENIC CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS

Authors: ROYA MOTALLEBI| Tissue Culture and Gene Transformation Department, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Mahdasht Road, P. O....
( 32 downloads)
Abstract

Abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity are the most considerable cause of crop productivity decrease in agriculture. Genetic engineering can improve crop tolerance to abiotic stresses by many ways. Mannitol is one of plant osmoprotectants to cope with osmotic stress. In the previous study, we developed transgenic Canola (Brassica napus L.) using bacterial mtlD gene. Here, salt stress tolerance of transgenic (+mtlD) and non-transgenic (-mtlD canola plants studied on seed germination stages. The sterilized transgenic and non-transgenic seeds were cultured on MS media (pH 5.8) at different concentrations of NaCl (0 250 300, 350, 400 and 450 mM). HPLC analysis results showed that transgenic plants accumulate mannitol on average of 0.0440 mg/gDW, whereas wild-type plants did not accumulate any mannitol. However, transgenic seeds germinated at 350 mM NaCl, non-transgenic plants germinated not more than 250 mM of NaCl. Therefore, we demonstrated that the mtlD gene was expressed in transgeniccanola plants, resulting in mannitol accumulationand improved salt tolerance in transgenic seeds.

Keywords: Brassica napus, mtlD, Salinity stress, Seed germination, Transformation
THE STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF IRAN

THE STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF IRAN

Authors: ALI BESHARAT | Department of Economics, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran.
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

Production growth through the promotion of productivity is one of the main goals of countries. According to the country's fifth development plan; it is predicted that 33.3 percent of annual economic growth will be provided by improving productivity. Therefore, identifying factors promoting productivity is very important. This paper examined the causal relationship among productivity in the agriculture sector and some economic variables in Iran by applying the econometric techniques. The study explains the concepts and indicators of productivity and describes its role in promoting economic growth. In this study we developed a new approach to define productivity and determine factors affecting it in agriculture sector of Iran. We divided economy to two sector; agricultural sector and non-agricultural sector covering the entire Iran’s economy. We employed agricultural economics and welfare economics’ concepts and methods such as; production possibilities frontier, mathematical planning and social welfare function and also global efficiency to specify factors affecting productivity in agricultural activities. On the other hand, we considered empirical studies about concepts and indices of productivity and finally stipulated some suitable models and estimated all models applying a time series of variables covering 1959-2007 periods; and chose two the best models with well econometric characteristics. The results indicated that productivity (value added and its growth) in agricultural sector of Iran, significantly depends on relative prices of agricultural goods, quantity and quality of resources, and technical progress on production methods specially management styles. Finally coefficients of the model were estimated, the main hypotheses were examined and solutions for improving productivity are presented.

Keywords: Agricultural sector, Econometric, General equilibrium, Productivity, Relative prices of products

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