Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Development of Groundwater Potential Zone in North-Karnataka Semi-Arid Region Using Geoinformatics Technology

Development of Groundwater Potential Zone in North-Karnataka Semi-Arid Region Using Geoinformatics Technology

Authors: Basavaraj Hutti and Nijagunappa. R.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

A systematic planning of groundwater exploitation using modern techniques is essential for proper utilization and management of this precious but shrinking natural resource. With the advent of powerful and high-speed personal computers, efficient techniques for water management have evolved, of which Geoinformatics technology are of great significance. In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate possible groundwater potential zones in semi arid region of Ghataprabha basin. The thematic layers considered in this study are lithology, landform, drainage density, recharge, soil, land slope and surface water body, which were prepared using the Google Earth imagery and conventional data. All these themes and their individual features were then assigned weights according to their relative importance in groundwater occurrence and the corresponding normalized weights were obtained based on the Saaty’s analytical hierarchy process. The thematic layers were finally integrated using AutoDeskMAP and MapInfo GIS software to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. Thus, three different groundwater potential zones were identified, namely ‘good’, ‘moderate’ and ‘poor’. Moreover, the average annually exploitable groundwater reserve in the good zone was estimated to be 915 million cubic meter (MCM), whereas it is 381.25 915 MCM for the moderate zone and 228.75 MCM for the poor zone. Finally, it is concluded that the Geoinformatics technology are very efficient and useful for the identification of groundwater potential zones.

Keywords: Geoinformatics, drainage, semi-arid, GIS, groundwater
Calcareous Soil as a New Adsorbent to Remove Lead from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study

Calcareous Soil as a New Adsorbent to Remove Lead from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study

Authors: Das B. and Mondal N. K.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

In this work the feasibility of employing calcareous soil to remove lead (II) ions from its aqueous solutions was investigated under batch mode. The influence of solution pH, sorbent dose, initial lead (II) concentration, contact time, stirring rate and temperature on the removal process were investigated. The lead adsorption was favored with maximum adsorption at pH 6.0. Sorption equilibrium time was observed in 60 min. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of Pb(II) ion was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and surface mass transfer models. It was shown that the adsorption of lead ions could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The activation energy of the adsorption process (Ea) was found to be -34.64 kJ mol-1 by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating exothermic nature of lead adsorption onto calcareous soil. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (Go), the enthalpy (Ho) and the entropy change of sorption (So) have also been evaluated and it has been found that the adsorption process was spontaneous, feasible and exothermic in nature. A six layered feed forward neural network with back propagation training algorithm was developed using thirty one experimental data sets obtained from laboratory batch study. The ANN predicted results were compared with the experimental results of the laboratory test. It was concluded that calcareous soil has potential for application as an effective adsorbent for removal of lead ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, Calcareous soil, Isotherms, Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Neural network
Development of Crop Coefficients for Precise Estimation of Evapotranspiration for Mustard in Mid Hill Zone- India

Development of Crop Coefficients for Precise Estimation of Evapotranspiration for Mustard in Mid Hill Zone- India

Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Vijay Shankar and Mahesh Kumar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Precise estimation of evapotranspiration obtained by multiplying crop coefficient to reference evapotranspiration using readily available climatic data. Penman-Monteith equation is adopted world wide as the most reliable and accurate method for computing reference evapotranspiration. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) presented crop coefficient for estimation of evapotranspiration of different crops based on Penman-Monteith equation. The crop coefficient curves can be developed by plotting the ratios of crop evapotranspiration and reference evapotranspiration with respect to time. The crop coefficient curves were developed for mustard (Brassica juncea) by FAO-56 curve method and modified FAO-56 curve method. The FAO- 56 curve method underestimates mustard evapotranspiration by 16.80 per cent. Therefore, FAO-56 curve method does not appear to predict mustard evapotranspiration accurately. The modified FAO-56 curve method underestimates mustard evapotranspiration only by 8.33 per cent. Therefore, performance of modified FAO-56 curve method was found better than FAO-56 curve method for estimation of mustard evapotranspiration.

Keywords: Crop evapotanspiration, crop coefficient, reference evpotranspiration, and FAO curve
Rain Water Harvesting and Ground Water Recharging in North Western Himalayan Region for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity

Rain Water Harvesting and Ground Water Recharging in North Western Himalayan Region for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity

Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Thaman S., Agrawal G. and Sharma Poonam
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

This paper reveals the study of low cost traditional water harvesting structures that helps in improving the socio-economic status of the poor farmers of the hill region. In the foothill region of North Western Himalayan region of India, the soil erosion has converted most of the fertile soils into barren, fallow and degraded lands. It is estimated that about 40 per cent of the total geographical area of Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Jammu and Kashmir is highly degraded. Soil loss through erosion is about 3.6 to 80 t ha-1. The farmers are not aware of rainwater management for storage and ground water recharge. The major constraints identified for conservation and management of water and soil in the area includes lack of technical knowledge and poor economic status of the farmers. Assessment of the area showed that if rainwater is conserved vis-à-vis managed properly and existing technologies are refined for specific land and pedospheric characteristics, it would rehabilitate the degraded lands and in turn increase the productivity in the area. Low cost farm ponds are a better option for collecting rainwater excess during monsoon periods for utilization for irrigation. The most efficient and cheapest way of conserving rainwater at the agricultural farm was found to be in- situ runoff management, which also reduces soil losses and increases the opportunity time for ground water recharging. The earthen embankment for rainwater harvesting has cost benefit ratio of 1.38:1. In addition, good results of harvesting and storage are being achieved in ferro-cement water storage structures of different dimensions of 3 to 5 m deep and 1 to 3 m in diameter.

Keywords: In-Situ runoff management, Surface ponds Water harvesting structures
The Application of Gluta Aptera Wood (Rengas) as Natural Dye on Silk and Cotton Fabrics

The Application of Gluta Aptera Wood (Rengas) as Natural Dye on Silk and Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Razis Rahim, Mohd Rozi Ahmad, Muhammad Ismail Abdul Kadir, Mohd Iqbal Misnon
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Natural dyes are considered as sustainable and eco-friendly dyes. They can produce different shades of colours and have lower colour fastness than synthetic dyes. The products of natural dyes are very much in demand due to their ability to produce different shades and eco-friendly nature. The normal method to produce natural dyes from plants is by boiling in water and the coloured extract produced is dyed on fabric The colurs of natural dyes from plants come from leaves, barks, roots , fruits or berries. In this study, waste from Gluta aptera wood (Rengas), obtained from Wood Engineering Laboratory at Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), was tried and used as natural dye source due to the colour of the wood which is blood-red. The boiling and solvent extraction methods were used to obtain the dyes. The extracted dyes were applied on silk and cotton fabrics and their comparison in term of colours and shades on substrates, method of extractions as well as their ability to witstand washing, light and perspiration were compared.

Keywords: Colourfastness, Extraction, Gluta Aptera, Natural Dyes
Coliform Contamination on different Paper Currency in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Coliform Contamination on different Paper Currency in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Sushil Kumar Barolia, Sheetal Verma and Bhoopendra Kumar Verma
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Microorganisms are known to spread via air, water, food etc. an important mechanism of the spread of pathogens by formites. Food, water and soil borne infection are estimated to be affecting almost half of the world population. Paper currency notes which are transferred from one individual to other are known to carry bacteria on their surface and are responsible for transmitting them. These notes are susceptible to bacterial contamination during contaminate handing from person to person. An individual living in unhygienic conditions having unhygienic habits will contaminate the notes with bacteria e.g. habits such as using soling to count the paper notes also leads to the contamination and these notes will act as a vehicle delivering bacteria to contaminate the hands of the next user. Diseases continue to be a cause of major concern to human health in several part of the globe including in India, causing high morbidity, mortality and economic losses. Diseases that are transmittable contribute to paper currency this statistics by affecting human health and causing heavy looses directly or indirectly to economy. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the incidence and transmittance of microbes analysis from the paper currency collected from different regions of Ajmer and the presence of Escherichiacoli, Enterobacter spp. has been observed in the studied samples thereby highlighting the role of paper currency in spread of diseases.

Keywords: Bacterial contamination, Enterobacter, Escherichiacoli, Pathogens, Indian Paper currency
Statistical Method of Predicting the Northeast Rainfall of Tamil Nadu

Statistical Method of Predicting the Northeast Rainfall of Tamil Nadu

Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj and Raajalakshmi Aditya
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Over the last few decades, several models have been developed, attempting the successful forecasting of rainfall in India. Before going into robust methods, it is always healthy to analyze the recorded data. This paper presents the use of statistical techniques: multiple linear regression method in modeling the rainfall prediction over Tamil Nadu. The rainfall data for a period of 110 years was obtained from Indian Meteorological department, Chennai. The other parameters used to predict the rainfall was Outgoing long wave radiation, global temperature and sunspot numbers. The percentage error estimated was 15%. Thus the Outgoing long wave radiation, global temperature and sunspot numbers can be used as firm predictors of rainfall in other techniques like artificial neural network, GCM, etc. Thus this paper aims at determining the best predictors for forecasting the Tamil Nadu rainfall using statistical method.

Keywords: Monsoon Rainfall, Multiple Linear Regression, Outgoing Long Wave Radiation, Global Temperature, Sunspot Number
Performance Evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant for Textile Industry in Kolhapur of Maharashtra

Performance Evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant for Textile Industry in Kolhapur of Maharashtra

Authors: Desai P. A. and Kore V. S.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) of a textile industry located in kagal-Hatkanangale MIDC area, Kolhapur (Maharashtra). An effluent treatment plant is operating on biological treatment method (Fluidized Aerobic Bio-Reactor) with an average wastewater inflow of 2MLD has been considered for case study. The wastewater is analyzed for the major water quality parameters, such as pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The effluent samples were collected on a daily basis for a period of one month. The raw wastewater pH was highly alkaline it was then bringing down to neutral which was helpful for biological treatment. The BOD, COD of the treated effluent reduced significantly, where as very small reduction was observed in dissolved solids. Most of all the parameters were within the permissible limits of Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, India.

Keywords: Effluent Treatment Plant, Textile Industry, identification, rectification
Stochastic Modelling of Annual Rainfall at Tamil Nadu

Stochastic Modelling of Annual Rainfall at Tamil Nadu

Authors: Tamil Selvi S., Samuel Selvaraj R.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Rainfall is a phenomenon, which directly or indirectly affects all the sectors like agriculture, insurance, industry and other allied fields. Prediction of rainfall has remained an unsolved problem till now. One of the statistical techniques is the Markov chain used to predict precipitation on short term, at meteorological stations. This paper deals with the variations of annual rainfall in Tamil Nadu based on Markov Chain models. For this purpose, we derived annual rainfall from 1901 to 2000 and frequency distribution table is formed. To calculate the yearly rainfall variations the class interval is treated as states and transition probability matrix is formed. The uniform random states are also formed by generating uniform random number. If the future climate conditions are known with sufficient accuracy, the stochastic climate models available at present can be adapted to generate climate for the new conditions.

Keywords: Markov chain, frequency distribution, random number, rainfall, Prediction
New locality record of Montane Trinket snake Coelognathus helena monticollaris (Schulz, 1992) from Vansda National Park, Navsari, Gujarat, India

New locality record of Montane Trinket snake Coelognathus helena monticollaris (Schulz, 1992) from Vansda National Park, Navsari, Gujarat, India

Authors: Walmiki Nitin, Kumbhar Amol, Jadhav Aniket, Karangutkar Siddhesh,Vishal Wagh, VedpathakSomnath, KadamReshma, Saldanha Michael and Bhaskar Yengal
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

During a visit to the Vansda National Park (VNP), Gujarat, a male specimen of Montane Trinket snake Coelognathus helena monticollaris, Sculz, 1992, (20o45' 25.55" N 73o28' 36.49" E) was spotted resting near a water body at the elevation of 487 ft., on May 21, 2011. Vansda National Park (Figure 1) (20051'16"-21021'22"N & 73020'30"- 73031'20"E) in Vansda Taluka of Navsari District is a hilly terrain with hills of moderate altitudes from 110-360m, an extension of the Sahyadri Range (North Western Ghat). After 1986 the forest area of 23.99 km2 was declared as National Park under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 by the State Forest Department, Government of Gujarat (notification no. GANV/3585/WLP/2076/87594 dated 13.vi.1986). As the forest forms continuous tract with the forest of adjoining district of Dangs, the sanctuary is managed by South Dangs Forest Division. The forest belongs to the category of tropical moist deciduous forests and the terrain represents northern and western limits of the Western Ghats.

Keywords: locality record, Montane Trinket, snake Coelognathus
Modulation of Cyclonic Disturbance by Natural Climate Variability over the North Indian Ocean

Modulation of Cyclonic Disturbance by Natural Climate Variability over the North Indian Ocean

Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj and R. Uma
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Tropical cyclones are one of the nature’s most violent manifestations and potentially the deadliest of all meteorological phenomena. In this paper, an attempt is being made to study the Tropical Cyclonic disturbance over the North Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) by natural climate variability. In order to understand how the tropical cyclones will cause change in future climate, we need first to understand their respond to natural climate variability. The predictor chosen is the intraseasonal - interannual time scale namely Quasi – Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Correlation coefficients are found for westerly and easterly phase of the QBO. The correlated values are least negative. The correlation is less significant for the Tropical Cyclone and QBO data.

Keywords: correlation coefficient, cyclonic disturbance, quasi- biennial oscillation
Study on Correlation between Southwest and Northeast Monsoon Rainfall over Tamil Nadu

Study on Correlation between Southwest and Northeast Monsoon Rainfall over Tamil Nadu

Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj and Raajalakshmi Aditya
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

In the present study 110 years (1900-2010) data is used for studying correlative effects between southwest (June-September) and northeast monsoon (October –December) rainfall over Tamil Nadu. For the period of different solar cycles, we compute the correlation coefficients using Spearman Rank technique. A correlation analysis between the two rainfall series revealed that the southwest monsoon rainfall is negatively correlated with that of the northeast monsoon rainfall. That is, an excess or deficit of southwest monsoon rainfall over this region is generally followed by an opposite tendency in the northeast monsoon rainfall. It also reveals that the rainfall in the two monsoons is not independent of each other. The negative rainfall relationship can be a useful tool in foreshadowing the northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu, which is of considerable economic importance for this region.

Keywords: Correlation, southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon, Spearman’s
Occurrences, Physical and Biochemical Properties of Laccase

Occurrences, Physical and Biochemical Properties of Laccase

Authors: Potti Ravindra Babu, Rajasekhar Pinnamaneni and Subramanyam Koona
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases that are widely distributed among plants, insects, and fungi. They belong to a group of polyphenol oxidases containing copper atoms in the catalytic centre which are usually called multicopper oxidases. It utilizes molecular oxygen to oxidize various aromatic and non-aromatic compounds. They have been described in different genera of ascomycetes, some deuteromycetes, and mainly in basidiomycetes. The enzyme catalyze the one electron oxidation of a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates, including mono-di- and polyphenols, amino-phenols, methoxyphenols, aromatic amines, and ascorbate, with the concamitant four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Laccases are found in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Laccase is localized both intracellular and extracellular fraction. In addition to the general inhibitors a very wide range of compounds are known to inhibit laccase. Fungal laccases typically exhibit pH optima in the acidic pH range and stable at temperature between 30-50°C, and isoeletric points (pI) ranging between 3 to 7. Km ranges from 10s of mM for syringaldazine and ABTS to 100 s of mM for DMP and guaiacol. Their importance in the synthesis and biodegradation of lignin remains an intensively studied subject and the biotechnological aspects of these enzymes seems to be just beginning. This review helps to understand the properties of this important enzyme for efficient utilization for its biotechnological and environmental applications.

Keywords: Laccase, catalytic activity, substrates, inhibitors, isoenzymes
Jatropha Plantation for Biodiesel Production in Rajasthan: Climate, Economics and Employment

Jatropha Plantation for Biodiesel Production in Rajasthan: Climate, Economics and Employment

Authors: Poonia, M.P., Jethoo, A.S.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Due to rapid increase in industrialisation, exponential growth of internal combustion engines, continuous deteriorating environment have paved the way to make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels such as Jatropha which have been considered as a prospective feedstock for biodiesel production in a number of hot and humid climatic countries. It has approximately same combustion characteristics and heat value as diesel fuel and has proved better environmental friendliness as compared to diesel and gasoline. Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant perennial, growing well even in poor soil conditions. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and survives, producing seeds for 50 years containing oil up to 37%. During present study, efforts have been made to study the suitability of Jatropha plantation in Rajasthan with respect to its climate suitability, financial viability and possible employment. Study is also aimed to calculate the possible replacement of diesel fuel by Jatropha seed oil if suitable waste land of 0.66 M ha in six districts of Rajasthan state which are most suitable for Jatropha plantation is used. It has been concluded that around 20.53 Lac people can be given employment for Jatropha plantation under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) which aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days job.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Economics, Employment generation
Effect of Photoperiodism on Feeding and Defecation in Compost Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae

Effect of Photoperiodism on Feeding and Defecation in Compost Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The effects of different fixed photoperiodic regimes on the rate of feeding and defecation in the epigeic oligochaete (Eudrilus eugeniae) has been investigated. The different photoperiods stipulated were Natural 12hr Light: 12hr Dark (natural LD 12:12), Reversal of 12hr Light: 12hr Dark ( reversal LD 12:12), 24hr Light source (L 24), 24hr Dark (D 24) and control set (natural rhythm) were experienced by E. eugeniae in the course of the study. The experiments were carried out during the ambient winter (26 degree C + 2 ) and all clitellate worms showed varied feeding and defecation activities. Worms fed actively only during night times under natural LD 12: 12. when exposed to reversal LD 12:12 revealed acclimatization to the changed conditions of day and night by the end of 2nd week and started feeding voraciously. Worms that were maintained in D 24 showed enhanced feeding rate with increased biomass over the worms that were maintained in natural LD 12:12 and natural rhythm (control set). ANOVA and ANCOVA tests applied revealed that the total darkness or diffused light without any disturbance influenced the feeding rate of worms that in turn showed higher production of defecation as vermicompost. The critical difference (C.D.) of ANOVA was 0.98(0.05%) and the difference for testing among treatments in ANCOVA was 781191.15(0.05). Resynchronization pattern were seen when changed to reversal LD 12:12 from natural LD 12:12. Observations revealed that worms were confused from day 1-4 when any changed photoperiodic devices were fixed other than their regular normal pattern of Light and Dark cycle and later got acclimatization into the induced photoperiodic cycles. The study apart from proving the exogenous factors on the photoperiodic effects also proven the importance of darkness to the worms in defecation that has importance in the conversion of given substrate at a faster pase.

Keywords: Photoperiodic effect, feeding rate, Eudrilus eugeniae, synchronization and re-synchronization

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