Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology

Basic info

  • Publisher: Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2017/May/21

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Environmental Sciences
  • Publisher's keywords: Environmental Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 80 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? True
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? True

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: None
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '345' articles

Economics, Formulation Techniques and Properties of Biodiesel: A Review

Economics, Formulation Techniques and Properties of Biodiesel: A Review

Authors: Mathur Y. B., Poonia M. P. and Jethoo A. S.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Due to limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concern, there has been improved focus on vegetable oils and biodiesel fuel as an alternative source of energy. Governments across the world are injecting huge amount of money into the development of this sector in an attempt to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. However, the alternative diesel fuels must be technically and environmentally acceptable, and economically competitive. From the viewpoint of these requirements, triglycerides and their derivatives may be considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. One of the main problems of vegetable oil use in diesel engine is their higher kinematic viscosity due to which problems occur in pumping and atomization, ring-sticking, carbon deposits on the piston, cylinder head, ring grooves, etc. Hence, straight vegetable oils have to be modified to bring their combustion related properties closer to diesel. This fuel modification is mainly aimed at reducing the viscosity in order to get rid of flow/ atomization related problems. In the present work, efforts have been made to understand and compile the outcome of researches on economics of biodiesel fuel, issues associated with use of vegetable oil in diesel engine by using some well known techniques available to overcome higher viscosity related problems for making them compatible with the hydrocarbon-based diesel and biodiesel fuel properties.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Blending, Micro-Emulsion, Pyrolysis, Transesterification, Vegetable Oil
Cotton Dyeing with Natural Dye Extracted from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel

Cotton Dyeing with Natural Dye Extracted from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel

Authors: Kulkarni S.S., Gokhale A.V, Bodake U.M, Pathade G.R.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Use of natural dyes has increased several folds in the past few years due to the eco-friendly approach of the people. This paper concerns with the purification of natural dyestuff extracted from an abundantly occurring plant ‘Punica granatum’. The main coloring agent in the pomegranate peel is granatonine which is present in the alkaloid form N-methyl granatonine. Solvent extraction method was used for the extraction of the dye. The pomegranate peel dye was used for dyeing of scoured cotton cloth using two mordants-copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, 3:1. Dyeing along with mordanting techniques which included premordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post mordanting was carried out. Study about fastness tests of dyed clothes was undertaken. Large range of shades was obtained because of varying mordant ratios and combinations. The production cost of the pomegranate peel dye was estimated.

Keywords: Color fastness, costing, granatonine, mordant, natural dye
Characterization of Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds in the Ambient Environment of Open Dump Sites

Characterization of Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds in the Ambient Environment of Open Dump Sites

Authors: Obuli P. Karthikeyan, S. Murugesan, Kurian Joseph, Ligy Philip
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Green house gas (GHGs) and particulate emissions are considered as one of the major issues in recent years from municipal solid waste dumping sites. Open burning is also very common, which emits plenty of volatile organic compounds and pose serious threat to the associated environment. Hence, characterization of air born pollutants from such dumping environment is necessary at this juncture to develop stringent regulatory rules in developing countries. Therefore, the study objective considered to characterize the ambient air samples from two municipal solid waste dumpsites viz., Kodungaiyur and Perungudi in Chennai during two different seasons. The characterization study showed that dust, black carbon, ammonia, sulphate and nitrate were the major species of PM10 and PM2.5. Major metal ions like Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were also identified in the particulates. Concentrations of particulates were observed to be high during the summer as compared to that of monsoon period in both the dumpsites. The respirable particulate matter in air samples varied widely between 211 µg/m3 and 900 µg/m3, and exceeding the upper limits of 150 µg/m3 standards prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), as well as United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The concentrations NOx is much higher than SOx in Kodungaiyur samples. The ambient air samples were also contained hazardous organic compounds such as diethyl phthalate, decane, dodecane, octane, nonane, methenamine, cyclobutane, carbon disulfide and acetone diperoxide.

Keywords: Air pollutants, Heavy metals, Open dumps, Particulate matters, Volatile organic compounds
Spatial Analysis of Composition and Species Interactions with Temporal Variation of Zooplankton Community of Shallow Tropical Lake: Thol Bird Sanctuary, India

Spatial Analysis of Composition and Species Interactions with Temporal Variation of Zooplankton Community of Shallow Tropical Lake: Thol Bird Sanctuary, India

Authors: Nirmal Kumar J. I., Verma Yamini and Rita N. Kumar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution of the zooplankton in a tropical Man-made reservoir- Thol Bird Sanctuary were investigated for two consecutive years from September 2007 to August 2009. The zooplankton was sampled at two different zones of Thol wetland located 23o15’N and 72o30’E near Ahmedabad city of Gujarat state, India. Sixteen species of Rotifers rich in number of individuals, density were dominant throughout the seasons in two sampling sites among the other groups. The main species were Polyarthra vulgaris, Keratella tropica, K. cochlearis and Brachionus forficula. Eleven species of Cladocera were more abundant in spring with the occurrence of Daphnia sp. and Macrothrix rosea at site 1 (feeder canal of the lake). Whereas, Diaphanosoma birgei, the most abundant Cladoceran, mainly occurred at site 2 (littoral zone of the lake). Peaks of tinted Protozoan were observed at site 1 during winter and spring. Variation in spatial distribution was noticeable, the abundance of zooplankton was significantly higher (P< 0.05) at the site 2 than the site 1 as a result of preponderance of the small Rotifers and Cladocerans particularly Bosmina longirostris. The analysis of one way ANNOVA between the sites for the first year showed the F̕(5.84) value is greater than critical F value (4.30), whereas in the second year P’ value (0.0005) is lesser than alpha (α) value 0.05.

Keywords: Density, Spatial-temporal distribution, Thol bird sanctuary, Zooplankton community
Potential of Cyperus Papyrus in Yard-Scale Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Cameroon

Potential of Cyperus Papyrus in Yard-Scale Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Cameroon

Authors: Fonkou Theophile, Ivo Balock Sako, Lekeufack Martin, Mekontso Tankoua Fabrice and Amougou Akoa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of Cyperus papyrus in horizontal flow constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. Two system configurations were used: the horizontal surface flow (HSF) and the horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Each wetland was continuously fed by primarily treated wastewater, at an average organic loading rate of 106 kg BOD/ha-d. Growth and productivity of the plant were assessed alongside the reduction of physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water in both wetland configurations. Progressive increase in the plant density, shoot length and stem diameter were observed. Above-ground and underground biomasses of 41 and 90 tonnes of dry weight/ha/year respectively were estimated. The reduction of several physicochemical parameters and that of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci were not significantly different in the vegetated as compare to the non vegetated control wetlands in both HSSF and HSF configurations. The HSF was nevertheless more efficient in the removal of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci as compared to the HSSF. The rate of absorption of ammonia nitrogen by C. papyrus was estimated to about 1.11 g/m2/d in the HSSF and 2.0 g/m2/d in the HSF wetlands, while that of nitrate nitrogen was estimated to about 0.35 g/m2/d and 0.57 g/m2/d respectively.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, Cyperus papyrus, plant performance, treatment efficiency
Transformation of Wet Garbage of Indian Urbanites at Household Level

Transformation of Wet Garbage of Indian Urbanites at Household Level

Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Human activities of all sorts generate waste and waste has to be managed properly. An illusion that anyone can think of is to throw the accumulated waste away from homes to keep clean and tidy within their dwellings. The objective of house-hold management of waste is to transform the wet/organic waste/garbage into resourceful compost by providing feasible, arable environment for microbial (aerobic) and compost earthworm activities. Since several decades several methods/protocols has been laid for, yet an easiest ways and means is not yet a near-reach of a kitchen worker. The method that has been mentioned in the current research is simpler, instantaneous and a natural aerator system that the waste itself adopts, is beyond imagination and one can keep their waste in the corner of one’s kitchen which is organic waste container without obnoxious odor, without fly menace and without leachate but emancipate a pleasant fruity odor/ after rain smell – a proof of healthy composting activity that will be set within 24hrs. The only another raw material (can be called as leachate absorbing raw material – LARM) that one need to outsource is coirpith/cocopeat from coir industry available in the Southern states of India and bagasse from sugarcane factories in the North-Western states of India and jute waste from Eastern parts of India. In the present study as model two sets of wet garbage generated in urban family has been taken up. Four member family and a ten member family work have been shown to prove the vermicomposting activities throughout the year, irrespective of season in a simpler, semiscientific manner.

Keywords: Earthworm activity, Odorless, Leachate, Ligno-cellulose, Waste, Fly menace, Wet garbage
Phytoremediation of Trace Metals in Shadawanka Stream of Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria

Phytoremediation of Trace Metals in Shadawanka Stream of Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Usman O.A. Shuaibu and Abdus-Salam Nasiru
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Environment has great impact on our health through the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. The number of contaminants entering the environment has increased greatly in Nigeria in recent times and this is due to increasing population, urbanization, industrialization, modern agricultural practices and transportation activities. Major among these contaminants are heavy metals which are potential health hazard to the populace and 60- 80% of heavy metal toxins found in human bodies were the results of consuming contaminated food and water rather than through air pollution. Contaminants in soil or water environment could be cleaned up using plants. The Shadawanka stream is a major stream in the heart of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria used for domestic, irrigation and for aquatic organisms. Heavy metal accumulation studies in Nymphaea lotus (Water lily) were carried out from eight different locations along the stream using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric technique in the months of April-June 2003. The levels obtained for the metals were in the range of 79.80- 130.20mg/100g for Zinc, 50.19- 69.90mg/100g for Lead, 53.60- 58.20mg/100g for Iron and 7.21- 8.9mg/100g for Cadmium. The results showed that the plant has high tendency to selectively bioaccumulate Zinc and Lead thus suggesting that it could be used to monitor Zinc and Lead levels in the stream. The present study indicates that the plant has high potential to selectively uptake lead and zinc faster than cadmium and iron in the stream.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Trace Metals, Shadawanka Stream
Production of Vermicompost from Temple Waste (Nirmalya): A Case Study

Production of Vermicompost from Temple Waste (Nirmalya): A Case Study

Authors: Gurav M. V. and Pathade G. R.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Vermicomposting is the phenomenon of compost formation by earthworms. Earthworms play an important role in the cycling of plant nutrients, turnover the organic matter and maintain the soil structure. The temple wastes consist of vegetable material (mainly flowers, leaves, fruits, sugar, jaggery etc.), milk and milk products, grains and water most of which are biodegradable and contain elements required for growth of microorganisms and the temple wastes are released in the water bodies or dumped at the available places of land which creates severe environmental pollution and health hazards ,hence it was thought to attempt use temple waste for ecofriendly treatment methods like Biomethanation and vermicomposting. The effluent of biomethanation upon mixing with biodegradable organic solids serves as good raw material for vermicomposting. In the present studies vermicomposting, the effluent from biogas digester (biomethanation) run on Ganesh temple waste (Sangli, Maharashtra) was admixed with temple waste solids and cattle dung and after partial the decomposition for 30 days at 30Oc, it was used to fill up 2 kg capacity plastic tubs and subjected for optimization of parameters like moisture content, particle size, pH of material and temperature of vermicomposting using Eudrilus eugeniae earth worm species. It was found that 25oC temperature, pH 8.0, 1-2mm particle size and 80% moisture content were optimum parameters of vermicomposting. It was further found that vermicompost obtained by above method was rich in percent carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium content i.e. 28, 1.58, 0.33 and 0.28, respectively. The pot culture studies using five flowering plants (Gulab, Jaswand and Mogra varieties) of the test set (using prepared vermicompost as fertilizer) used in the studies showed good enhancement of growth in terms of height, flowering time as well as number of flowers produced as compared to control sets(without use of vermicompost as fertilizer). Thus, vermicomposting of temple waste is an excellent and ecofriendly method of temple waste management.

Keywords: Nirmalya, Pot culture, Temple waste, Vermicompost
A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Bore Well Chemistry Data - Nashik and Niphad Taluka of Maharashtra, India

A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Bore Well Chemistry Data - Nashik and Niphad Taluka of Maharashtra, India

Authors: Kanade S. B. and Gaikwad V. B.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Pearson correlation matrix, Hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis (PCA) were simultaneously applied to groundwater hydro chemical data of 31 bore well locations in post monsoon 2007 from Nashik and Nipahd taluka. Using the Kaiser criterion, principle component (PC) was extracted from the data and rotated using varimax normalization, for 31 locations. The combined use of both technique resulted in more reliable interpretation of the hydrochemistry. From the analysis, concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium ( Na), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3) at most of the sampling stations in agricultural area having higher values. Computational analysis of data set of hydro chemical constituents in the groundwater suggests that the aquifer is mainly controlled by Cl, Na, EC and TDS; there is strong positive relationship between TDS - EC, TDS- Cl, TDS - TH and TDS - Na. It indicates that, there is strong evidence of anthropogenic activities on major ions present in the groundwater and weathering of sodium, potassium minerals in the study area. The high Na and Cl contents detected in certain samples may suggest the dissolution of chloride salts. The dissolution of halite in water release equal concentrations of Na and Cl into the solution.

Keywords: Dendrogram, Groundwater, Hydro chemical Data, Hierarchical Cluster, Multivariate Analysis, Principal Component analysis
Comparison of the Water Quality of Two Aquifers Established in Different Development Zones of Mexico

Comparison of the Water Quality of Two Aquifers Established in Different Development Zones of Mexico

Authors: Esperanza Robles, Elizabeth Ramirez, Blanca Martinez, Maria de Guadalupe Sainz and Maria Elena Gonzalez
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The rapid growth of urban areas has further affected groundwater quality due to over-exploitation of resources and improper waste disposal practices. The over-exploitation of aquifers, which reduces natural recharge due to high urbanization and anthropogenic activities, has caused a decrease in groundwater quality in many areas. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of the Mexico City and Tepalcingo-Axochiapan, Morelos aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected every two months for one year. The bacteriological and physicochemical parameters were analyzed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The Tepalcingo-Axochiapan, Morelos aquifer had higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in most wells and samplings than the Mexico City aquifer. Fecal coliform values of the two aquifers were lower than the maximum permissible limit indicated in the Mexican Ecological Criteria of Water Quality (1000 colony forming units (CFU)/100 ml of fecal coliforms) for public supply sources. Average values of electrical conductivity and dissolved solids in the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer were higher than average values from the Mexico City aquifer. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) only for hardness and sulfates, they were the physicochemical parameters that showed the biggest difference between the two aquifers, the concentrations of both parameters being higher in the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer than in the Mexico City aquifer. In general, the average values of the physicochemical parameters were below the maximum permissible limits indicated in the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-127-SSA1-1994) for drinking water.

Keywords: Aquifers, Groundwater, Microbiological Quality, Physico-Chemical Quality
Analysis of Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in Dwellings in Mitrovica, Kosova

Analysis of Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in Dwellings in Mitrovica, Kosova

Authors: Besim Xhafa, Theodhor Karaja, Sadik Bekteshi, Skender Kabashi and Gezim Hodolli
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

The seasonal variation analysis of indoor radon concentration has been carried out in selected public buildings in Mitrovica. Measurements were performed with Continuous Radon Monitor Model CRM-510. Mitrovica has been chosen for this study since it is a post-industrial town in which many former industrial objects are been used for other public purposes. According to the findings of this study the estimated annual average indoor radon concentration in the houses surveyed depend on season and ranges from 184.3 Bqm−3 to 299.4 Bqm−3. Nevertheless, in particular, higher values of radon concentration have been found in Battery Factory which range from 450.4 Bqm−3 to 660.2 Bqm−3. The season/annual ratios for different type of dwellings varied from 1.01 to 1.9. The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied locations was estimated to be 1.60 mSvy-1. to 4.01 mSvy−1. The annual estimated effective dose is close to the recommended action level.

Keywords: Indoor, seasonal measurement, radon, concentration, exposure dose, dwelling
Environmentally Safe Renewable Energy Technology Using Sugar Cane

Environmentally Safe Renewable Energy Technology Using Sugar Cane

Authors: Jadhav R. T.
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Energy and environment are the two basic components of the new global of sustainable development. The story of the energy starts with wood, wood came to be replaced by coal and coal by oil only partially. Now a stage appears to have been reached when oil may also have to be substituted by Biomass. Sugar industry is one of the most important industries, playing vital role in the economic development of the nation and also a most advanced processing industry in the agricultural sector in India. After processing for cane sugar, the precipitate down at the bottom of the clarifier is called press mud, otherwise known as sugar cane mud, Mostly the cane leaves are supposed to be nuisance to the farmers and are so called waste residues. The bagasse and cane leaves are good candidates for gasification.

Keywords: Biomass, Agricultural Sector, Economic Development, Social Development, Cane Leaves
Fractal Dimension Analysis of Northeast Monsoon of Tamil Nadu

Fractal Dimension Analysis of Northeast Monsoon of Tamil Nadu

Authors: Tamil Selvi S., Samuel Selvaraj R.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Analysis of the general rainfall trend is vital for the purpose of forecasting and in identifying the changes and impacts that are very crucial for an agro-based economy like the one of Tamil Nadu. Northeast monsoon data of Tamil Nadu is used for fractal dimension analysis using Hurst exponent method. The Hurst exponent (H) is a statistical measure used to classify time series. It is found that the behavior of Northeast monsoon rainfall in Tamil Nadu is anti-persistent, since the value of fractal dimension (D) is 1.7895.

Keywords: Anti-persistent, Fractal dimension, Hurst exponent, Northeast monsoon
Challenges of Climate Change Vis-A-Vis Tactic for Cooling the Earth

Challenges of Climate Change Vis-A-Vis Tactic for Cooling the Earth

Authors: Subhash Chand and Rohitash Kumar
( 2 downloads)
Abstract

Climate change is a world wide reality discussed and debated at every corner of scientific, political and economical forms. However, it can be tackle, if timely mitigation practices widely adopted for cooling the earth. There is a need to develop a common sense in our daily life for saving the energy (light, fuel, water, air) for future use. Common adoptable and recommended practices have a substantial contribution in cooling the earth and making congenial environment for human-plant-lives.

Keywords: Climate change, Cooling earth, Energy, Resource Conservation
Geoinformatics Technology Application in North Karnataka for Water Resources Management

Geoinformatics Technology Application in North Karnataka for Water Resources Management

Authors: Basavaraj Hutti and Nijagunappa R.
( 1 downloads)
Abstract

Karnataka is in dearth of water resources, especially in its arid and semi-arid regions. So the management of water resources in these areas is very important. The annual average rainfall of 50 cm for the whole country and its totality area, it has been discovered that total water resources in India are of the order of 167 million hectare-meters. It has further been calculated that only 66 million hectare-meters of water resources in India can be employed for irrigation. The population of India as on 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) persons. Thus, India supports about 1/6th of world population, 1/50th of world’s land and 1/25th of world’s water resources. India also has a livestock population of 500 million, which is about 20 percent of the world’s total livestock population. More than half of these are cattle, forming the backbone of Indian agriculture. The total utilizable water resources of the country are assessed as 1086 km3. Geoinformatics technology has its special advantage in this aspect. The paper introduces the applications of Geoinformatics, including remote sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system, in this field, such as surface water resources, groundwater exploration, dynamic monitoring of floods, water environment and drought monitoring, planning of water diversion project between basins and so on. It shows that Geoinformatics technology can play important role for North Karnataka development, especially in India. India is still an agricultural country; with the advent of powerful and high-speed personal computers, efficient techniques for water resource management have evolved, of which Geoinformatics technology includes RS (Remote Sensing), GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) are of great significance.

Keywords: Geoinformatics, remote sensing, semi-arid, water resources

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