Journal of Herbal Drugs

Journal of Herbal Drugs

Basic info

  • Publisher: Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch
  • Country of publisher: iran, islamic republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/Feb/04

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Marketing, Agricultural Science, Biotechnology, Botany, Genetics, Plant Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacology, Toxicology
  • Publisher's keywords: Herbs, Cultivation or Agronomy, Breeding, Biotechnology, Marketing and Economy, Medicinal Plants, Genetic
  • Language of fulltext: english, persian
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2011
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '260' articles

Identifying some medicinal kinds at risk of extinction in Kallar Mountain in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province

Identifying some medicinal kinds at risk of extinction in Kallar Mountain in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province

Authors: Asghar Shahrokhi; Hamzeh Ali Shirmardi; Maryam Ghaedamini
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province contains several major floristic plant associations of central Zagros Mountains. Kallar species were used for medicines nutrias in this area. However, these valuable species have been threatened and even become at risk of extinction due to habitat fragmentation and disturbance. Therefore, the first step in protecting theses species is identify species habitats in particular in those with major plant associations. One of the important centers in the province of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province is Kallar Mountain; It is an area of ​​approximately 5,086 hectares and, is located at the center of the province. Range of the mountain is between 1900 and 3814 meters above sea level. The average annual rainfall of 511.4 mg and average temperature is 10.45 ºC. Experimental: Various parts of the mountain were sampled more than 30 times and all the plants species were identified. A-biotic factors were also collected. Results & Discussion: The results showed that Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province has about 1,300 species of choromophyta among which about 600 plant species were found in Kallar. There are 91 medical species belong 38 family, 80 geniuses. 67 Iranian endemic plant species were found in Kallar among which 28 species medical were identified as medical such as Achillea kellalensis Boiss. & Haus and Satureja kallarica Jamzad. 84 species are listed in Red Data Book of Iran, among which 61 species LR, are 12 species are (vu), 11 species (DD) were identified in Kallar. Industrial and practical recommendations: Most endangered plants are medicinal and endemic by protecting, reproducing and rehabilitation of their habitats; major steps are likely to take in order to conserve plant genetic resources.

Keywords: Medicinal plants Endemic Plant genetic resources Flora
Effect of different level water and nitrogen on morphological and physiological traits of Matricaria aurea L.

Effect of different level water and nitrogen on morphological and physiological traits of Matricaria aurea L.

Authors: Firoozeh Ghani; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Behzad Hamedi; Fatemeh Malekpoor
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Matricaria aure is one of medicinal plants belonging to Asteraceae family. They naturally grow in some regions of the country and have different medical properties and various applications in medicine production and traditional medications. Ecological conditions have a significant impact on growth, performance, and quality of medical plants. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of two important ecological factors (nitrogen and water) on the growth, performance and essential oil from Matricaria aure. Experimental: The present research has been carried out at the researches centre of medical plants in Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, in 2008. In this research, the factorial experiment with completely random bases and three replications were used. Five different levels of nitrogen (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/pot) and three levels of irrigation (0, 25, and 50 % depletion of the soil moisture) were studied. Results & Discussion: The result of analysis of variance of the experiment for Matricaria aurea showed that different levels of nitrogen do have significant impacts on the plant height, chlorophyll content, total dry matter and % essential oil. Also, the impact of different levels of water on all characteristics was significant.

Keywords: Nitrogen Drought stress Matricaria aurea Essential oil
Assessment of use traditional and native medicinal plants in the North of Iran (case study: series 81 and 83 forestry project of natural resources department of Mazandaran-Sari)

Assessment of use traditional and native medicinal plants in the North of Iran (case study: series 81 and 83 forestry project of natural resources department of Mazandaran-Sari)

Authors: Alavi S.Z; Rabie E; Saeedi Goraghani H.R; Ghordoye Milan GH
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: In recent years, Iran and other countries pay special attention to side effects of chemical plants. This interest in plants and their derivatives leads to business of medicinal plants. In Caspian region, in forestry projects there are many plant species with medicinal uses from which the locale indigenous used due to traditional experience without any especial processing in past centuries. In this regard, the forestry projects of the 83th area (series one, two and three) including ​​25429 hectares located at 80 km from south part of Behshahr and the 81th area including 14528 hectares located at 70 km from south part of Neka were selected to be studied. Experimental: In order to introduce the species of medicinal and aromatic plants, the collected ones from the region have been identified after transferring to herbarium by using various floras. Then, using the local data obtained from direct interviews and questionnaires and related books, their pharmacological profile were recorded and, the processing and analysis were performed on raw data. Results & Discussion: The results of this study showed that there are 210 species which belong to 47 families in the studied area, among which 30 families have 76 species from which 24 species of rangeland plant and 6 species of tree and shrub are used by local people. This study showed that local people used these plants after converting some useable parts of them into nectars, jams, pickles sauce, or boiled plants. Also, using the green parts of plants as edible vegetables and food flavoring is of great importance. Industrial and practical recommendations: Research on understanding and how to use rangeland medicinal plants can be helpful so to pharmaceutical industry. So the supportive actions to identify preserve and increase the valuable species of medicinal plants in this region are recommended.

Keywords: Medicinal Plant Forestry Project Traditional Botany
Effect of methanol and ethanol application on yield of Echinacea purpurea L. in Karaj region

Effect of methanol and ethanol application on yield of Echinacea purpurea L. in Karaj region

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Khosravi; Ali Mehrafarin; Hassanali Naghdibadi; Reza Hajiaghaee; Esmaeil Khosravi
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: This experiment investigated the effect of foliar application of methanol and ethanol on the biomass yield of medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. Purple coneflower is an herbaceous perennial in the Asteraceae family that is used in therapy of respiratory tract infection and bacterial otitis. Experimental: This experiment was conducted in randomized complete block designed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in institute of medicinal plant (ACECR (in Karaj region in spring in 2010. The following is the treatment of this study: aqueous solution of methanol with levels of (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%), and aqueous solution of ethanol with levels (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%), and aqueous solution of mixed ethanol and methanol with the levels of (5, 15, 25%), and distilled water treatment and control treatment without spraying. Results & Discussion: The result of this study indicated that the effect of treatments on 23 evaluated index has significant difference (p<0.01). Maximum of plants height, stem diameter, capitule diameter , leaf length, leaf width, root fresh weight, root dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf dry weight, length of root, numbers of stem's leaves, fresh plant weight, and dry plant weight related to foliar application of 40% methanol, and the maximum of number of stem's, shoot antlers of root, leaf area, chlorophyll (SPAD) were obtained by foliar application of 30% methanol, also capitule fresh weight, seed weight, and capitule dry weight was obtained by solution of 50% methanol, and diameter of root and thousand seeds weight was obtained by 50% ethanol, and maximum number of capitule was obtain by foliar application of 40% ethanol.

Keywords: Echinacea purpurea Foliar application Ethanol Methanol Yield
Effect of ultrasound on the production of Carvone as a secondary metabolite in callus derived from Bunium persicum Boiss

Effect of ultrasound on the production of Carvone as a secondary metabolite in callus derived from Bunium persicum Boiss

Authors: Mahmood Atrashi; Elham Tavokoli Dinanie; Mohammad Taghi Darzi; Javad Hashemi; Shirin Rozbeh; Amir Masumi
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Medicinal plants are most valuable and useful sources as productive factors of drugs. Production and extraction of secondary metabolites have a huge economical importance in recent years. Carvone is a compound in Bunium persicum fruit and shoot and, it is one of the wide range varieties of valuable and useful secondary metabolites. Due to limited crop production, using appropriate stimulating factors, such as ultrasound is an efficient way in the production of secondary metabolites in plant cell culture. Experimental: In this study, callus in suspension environment influenced by treatments once or twice, with times 0, 5, 20, 35, 50 and 240 seconds by means of ultrasonic bath with a frequency of 38.5 kHz and constant power examined. After extraction of Carvone, the amount of this secondary metabolite was measured by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results & Discussion: Stimulating effect of ultrasound increased the synthesis of Carvone dramatically. According to the observations, combination of hormone with using the bath for 2 times and each time for 35 seconds, created highest rate of Carvone. By contrast, controlling the all cases showed the lowest level of Carvone. Industrial and practical recommendations: Ultrasound irradiation can act as a potent abiotic elicitor to induce the defense responses of plant cells and to stimulate secondary metabolite production in plant cell cultures.

Keywords: Ultrasound Secondary metabolites Tissue culture Carvone Bunium persicum Boiss
Effects of biofertilizers on yield and essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

Effects of biofertilizers on yield and essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

Authors: Meisam Pourhadi
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Nowadays, tendency to agricultural biotic product sustainable agriculture instead of chemical ‎fertilizers has been going up in all over the world. So, most pharmaceutical industries prefer to ‎use raw material which is produced from organic and stable system. Producing organic ‎medicinal plants, such as peppermint, seems important in economical, ecological and ‎bio environmental aspects. Experimental: Three biological fertilizers effect (Nitroxyn, Supernitroplus, Biosulfore) and urea on qualitative ‎and quantitative character of peppermint is the aim of this project which was done in a farm of ‎Jihad Daneshgahi Institute of Iran during 2008-2009, as a complete randomized block design ‎with 9 treatment fertilizer and 3 replications. Nine treatments were as follows: Azospirillum/Azotobacter (Nitroxin 4 and 8 Kg/ha), Azospirillum / Bacillus subtilis/Pseudomonas ‎fluorescens (Super Nitro Plus 4 and 8 Kg/ha), (Biosulfur 4 and 8 Kg/ha, Urea fertilizer (75 and ‎‎100 Kg/ha), and control treatment with no fertilizer.‎. Results & Discussion: The results indicated that all fertilizer treatment (biologic & urea) had a significant increase in most ‎character comparing to control treatment and among biofertilizers, Nitroxin and supernitroplus ‎‎ (8 kg/ha) on par with urea fertilizer had the most effect additive on most characters. Based on ‎this results, the above mentioned biofertilizers increased qualitative and quantitative yield of ‎peppermint. Industrial and practical recommendations: According to the findings of this experiment, biological fertilizers led to increasing the qualitative and quantitative functions of peppermint. Using biofertelizer including Nitroxin and supernitroplus the utilization of nitrogen chemical fertilizers originated from urea can be reduced which is an efficient step in achieving to a stable agriculture and decreasing biochemical pollution.

Keywords: Mentha piperita L. Organic Nitroxin Supernitroplus Biosulfur Urea
The essential oils of some medicinal plants on the immune system and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

The essential oils of some medicinal plants on the immune system and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Authors: Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Esmaeil Pirali; Gholamreza Pishkar; Seyed Mohammadali Jalali; Mehdi Reyesi; Mohsen Jafarian Dehkordi; Behzad Hamedi
( 21 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: In present study, some of the Iranian endemic medicinal plants were used to evaluate potential as well as therapeutic agent and immunostimulants in aquaculture. The essential oils of five species from leaves and inflorescence were used to determinate the effects on immune system in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Experimental: The experimental in a completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replicates and each replicate fish was divided into 12 pieces. An experiment with 252 fishes with average weight 50±5 g for 8 weeks was conducted. The experimental treatments were: essential oil of 1. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge; 2. Thymus daenensis Celak; 3. Satureja Khuzestanica Jamzad; 4. Dracocephalum multicaule Benth; 5. Mentha longifolia L) 1% oil); 6. Normal diet + olive oil; 7. Normal diet (control). Results & Discussion: The results of analysis of variance showed significant different (p≤0.05) between almost of factors of immune system and growth of rainbow trout. The results showed the highest levels of immune factors relating to the percentage of phagocytosis and the number and rate of crime phagosite Igm three essential oils of M. longifolia, S. khuzestanica, and D. multicaule. Lymphocytes in the blood and blood heterophile between yourself and the control diet containing the essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica significant difference (p≤0.05) was observed. There was no significant difference between some of the factors of immune system and growth of rainbow trout (hematocrit, hemoglobin, monocytes and etc). Industrial and practical recommendations: The use of essential oils and herbs, especially the Mentha longifolia and Satureja bachtiarica can improve the status indicator.

Keywords: Immune system Rainbow trout Mentha longifolia L. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge
The examination of intellectual right of medicinal plants and the issue of bio-theft due to agreement of TRIPS

The examination of intellectual right of medicinal plants and the issue of bio-theft due to agreement of TRIPS

Authors: Maryam Ahmadi; Abotaleb Kosha
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

Over the past two decades, the role of intellectual property rights in all areas of science and technology has exploded globally– primarily due to the rules prescribed by the World Trade Organization’s TRIPS and by bilateral/regional trade agreements. The TRIPS agreement obligates all WTO member countries to adopt and enforce minimum standards of intellectual property rights. The TRIPS agreement requires member countries to make patents available for inventions, whether products or processes, in all fields of technology without discrimination, subject to the standard patent criteria (novelty, inventiveness and industrial applicability). During the negotiations on the TRIPS agreement, consensus was not reached on the controversial area of biotechnological inventions. The US and some other developed countries pushed for no exclusions to patentability, while some developing country members preferred to exclude all biological diversity-related inventions from IP laws. For many developing countries the patenting of life forms and exclusive monopoly protection on biological products and processes that originate in developing countries (or that are based on traditional knowledge) continues to be controversial. The major genetic resources are in the southern states and so, many companies are seeking to access to genes, microbes, plants, animals and even native human populations to seize them as a monopoly product. Critics call the establishment of intellectual property rights to these resources for the industrial countries biopiracy and know the obligation of developing nations to pay royalties to wealthy industrial countries for the products that obtained from their own genetic resources and traditional knowledge “biological colonialism”. Pharmaceutical industries are the biggest thieves of genetic and natural resources at the international level. This is the third world countries' responsibility while preserving their vital resources and reserves, ensure optimal use of these natural blessings.

Keywords: TRIPS Medicinal plants Intellectual right Bio-theft
Effect of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds on oviposition and egg hatching of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Effect of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds on oviposition and egg hatching of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Authors: Mahla Ashrafju; Kamal Ahmadi; Haji Mohammad Taklloozadeh; Yekta Baniadami; Azita Nazarian
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the most important pests of crops, ornamental and greenhouse plants in the world and, can damage to 900 plant species. Resistances to pesticides and acaricides have guided researches to introduce new methods to control T. urticae. Botanical pesticides are an important group of natural productions that are usually safer than conventional pesticides for humans and the environment. Extracts of genus Melia have insecticidal and anti-nutritional effects. The effect of ethanolic extracts of M. azedarach seeds on eggs hatching (hatching time & hatching rate) and egg-laying of T. urticae were investigated under laboratory conditions. Experimental: Treatments included the ethanolic plant extract (36 mg/ml) and control (ethanol 95%). The sub-lethal effect of the plant extracts was determined using a spraying bioassay. Results & Discussion: The duration of egg stage of T. urticae after exposing to plant extracts were significantly longer than control treatment with a mean±SE of 5.24±0.05 and 4.85±0.04 days, respectively. In control treatment, hatching rate of the spider mite eggs was significantly more than in plant extract treatment. The ethanolic plant extracts had significant deleterious effects on the oviposition behavior of the spider mite. So that, during four days of the experiment, the mean±SE of total oviposition of the mites was 2.95±0.65 and 12.17±1.33 in plant extract and control treatments, respectively. Industrial and practical recommendations: According to this result, substituting conventional pesticides with ethanolic seed extract of M. azedarach can be useful. However, formulating the plant extract is essential for commercial use of the acaricidal extracts. Therefore, it needs more scientific studies levels.

Keywords: Spider mite Melia azedarach Egg hatching
Bioactivities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globolus L. against Tribolium castaneum

Bioactivities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globolus L. against Tribolium castaneum

Authors: Fariba Bagheri; Mahmood Mohammadi Sharif; Ali Reza Hadizadeh; Behnam Amiri-Besheli
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: The use of herbal extracts as safe and effective factors for eradicating of stores pests has attracted much attention. In this paper, the bio-effects of fumigation and repellent effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus globolus were investigated on red flour beetle. Experimental: In this study, the toxicity, fumigation and repellency contacts were assayed by topical application and impregnation of filter papers (Whatman N°1). One micro liter of different essential oil concentrations were placed on thorax of adults by micro-applicator apparatus in topical application experiments. For impregnation method, treated filter papers were attached to top or bottom of Petri plates in two different assays in order to separation of fumigant and contact toxicity. Fumigation bioassays were carried out in 40 ml glass vials. For evaluating repellency value of the essential oil, the numbers of insects present on treated compared to untreated surface of filter papers were recorded after 2h of exposure and percentage repellency (PR). The essential oil achieved LD50 at 0.22 µl Insect-1 in topical method. It needs three time more essential oil for control of 90 percent of insects (LD90 = 0.69 µl/I) based on pro-bit analysis of data. Results & Discussion: We rejected the current method of contact toxicity evaluating as fumigation had more ‎contribution in filter paper treating assays. Percentage mortalities of ‎‏20.4‏‎, ‎‏14.8‏‎ and ‎‏14.8‏‎ were ‎evaluated by ‎‏1.04‏‎, ‎‏0.52‏‎ and ‎‏0.56‏‎ µl/cm‏2‏‎ of essential oil following subtraction of fumigant ‎toxicity portion. The LC‏50‏‎ of ‎‏113.6‏‎ µl/L of air were estimated in fumigation bioassays. Here ‎the equivalent LD‏90‏‎ was only ‎‏168.9 µl/L of air. The average repellency value of the four ‎concentrations, 0.93‏‎, ‎‏0.62‏‎, ‎‏0.31‏‎ and ‎‏0.1‏‎ µl/cm‏2‏‎ were ‎‏83.2 percent that is of group V (‎‏100-80.1‏‎‎‎% repellency). Industrial and practical recommendations: The limitation and prohibition of using chemical fumigation compositions appropriate have made the need of alternative pesticides more tangible. The considerable quantity of Eucalyptus extract, being harmless for biologic systems and its appropriate effectiveness on store pets are the factors that make this herbal composition important to be substituted for dangerous chemical compositions.

Keywords: Contact effect Fumigation effect Repellency Stored product pests
Investigate the possibility of using medicinal plant’s seeds substitute for agar gel in plant tissue culture and determine the optimal practical conditions of them

Investigate the possibility of using medicinal plant’s seeds substitute for agar gel in plant tissue culture and determine the optimal practical conditions of them

Authors: Mahmood Atrashi; Elham Tavokoli Dinanie; Amir Masomi
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Investigating the possibility of using medicinal plant’s seeds substitute for agar gel in plant tissue culture and determining the optimal practical conditions of them is the aim of this study. Experimental: In order to study the new gelling agents for using in plant tissue culture, we designed a tow part experiment by means of the seeds of medicinal plants such as Linum usitatissimum L., Citrus medica L., Lepidium sativum L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. These Experiments were carried out at the Tissue Culture Lab of the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, in 2010. Each experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. In first experiment, we were cultured explants of Stevia rubiana on prepared MS medium with different concentrations of four kinds of seeds (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g) instead of agar and control (use of agar with no seed). Second experiment was carried out to assess the best amount of Planta ovata’s seed in prepared standard MS medium. Results & Discussion: The highest value for all investigated factors was observed with Planta ovata. The results showed that 1 g of Planta ovata’s seed + charcoal is the best treatment for growing all parameters in Stevia explants, and it might be a good advice to use of Planta ovata’s seeds instead of agar in near future. Industrial and practical recommendations: According to the findings of this study, using Planta ovata’s seed can be recommended because of having mucilage as an alternative agar for gelling in plant tissue culture.

Keywords: Plant tissue culture Gelling agents Agar Plantago ovata Medicinal plant’s seed
Humidity effect on coefficient of static friction of rosemary and lavender by friction - electric meter

Humidity effect on coefficient of static friction of rosemary and lavender by friction - electric meter

Authors: Farzad Jalilian Tabar; Rashid Gholami; Ali Nejat Lorestani
( 24 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Increasing economic role of medicinal herbs in recent society and complexity of modern technologies in production (planting and harvesting), transportation, storage, processing, quality evaluation, distribution, marketing and consumption of these products require a thorough understanding of their physical properties. Coefficient of friction of plant on the various surfaces is needed in designing of silos, storage of agricultural products and handling equipment, such as conveyors, and design of other equipment used in post harvest processing. Experimental: In this study, static coefficient of friction for two values of water content (wet basis) 58% and 53% for rosemary and, 65% and 63% for lavender on three surfaces, galvanized steel, glass and wood was investigate. For this purpose an apparatus made that includes an electrical motor and an optical sensor for precise measurement of the slipping moment of the product and its coefficient of friction. Results & discussion: Average values of maximum and minimum of static coefficient of friction that obtained for rosemary at 58 percent of water content were 0.87 on the wood surface and 0.46 on the glass, respectively. While at 53 percent water content, the maximum and minimum average values of coefficient of static friction obtained for rosemary were on wood, 0.66 and glass 0.38, respectively. The minimum average value of coefficient of friction for the lavender at 65 percent water content was 0.66 and on the glass however after the reduction of water content, at 63 percent water content, obtained 0.56 on the glass, too. Industrial and practical recommendations: The understanding of the engineering properties of herbal drugs for creating appropriate industrial procreation methods is of great importance.

Keywords: Post harvest processing Engineering properties Procreation Transportation
Micro-morphology of fruit and pollen in Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad

Micro-morphology of fruit and pollen in Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad

Authors: Elham Moallem; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Sedigheh Yousef Naanaie
( 22 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad. is an aromatic and medicinal perennial plant belongs to family mint (Lamiaceae). It is also an Iranian exclusive endemic species, its essential oil components are widely used in medicinal, culinary, and perfume industries. Experimental: Flowers were collected in 10 regions in Khuzistan and Lorestan provinces, Iran at early anthesis during 2009. Micro-morphology of pollen and nutlet was studied through SEM observation. Results & discussion: Insignificant pollens of S. khuzistanica were hexacolpate, radially symmetrical, oblate-spheroidal, and isopolar. Exine sculpturing is bireticulate and pitted. The nutlets showed undulate-reticulate pattern formed by hexagonal cells. Industrial and practical recommendations: Micro-morphology comparison of nutlet and pollen in S. khuzistanica with other genus of Lamiaceae imports for taxonomy this genus. The S. khuzistanica pollen is like other types and species of family Lamiaceae and all of these differences and similarities can help in more exact taxonomy of this species, along with other researches.

Keywords: Satureja khuzistanica Micromorphology Taxonomy Pollen
Identification and determination of different alkaloids from Atropa belladonna L. by Gas chromatography method

Identification and determination of different alkaloids from Atropa belladonna L. by Gas chromatography method

Authors: Sajjad Sedaghat; Reza Hajiaghaee; Rahim Taghizad Farid; Zohreh Kadkhoda; Sayad Vahid Ghasemi; Hasan Ali Naghdi Badi; Farhad Harriri; Shams Ali Rezazad...
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: A. belladonna (family: Solanaceae) is one of important pharmaceutical plants which contain tropane ‎alkaloids. Tropane alkaloids are distinct group of secondary metabolites of the ‎Solanaceae family. The most important alkaloids of A. belladonna are atropine and hyoscine that are used extensively because of their medicinal properties. Therefore Identification and ‎Determination‏ ‏of Different Alkaloids rate by Gas chromatography (GC) Method in Iran various areas are necessary. Experimental: The accessions were collected from five different regions including Ardabil, Marzanabad, Tonekabon, Karaj and Ramsar (Iran) and all of plant organs were dried. Using ‎change of pH‏ ‏and solvents, the alkaloids contents were extracted and the identified and finally ‎the amount of each alkaloid was determined. Results & Discussion: Atropine contents in the accessions of Ardebil, Marzanabad, Tonekabon, Karaj, and Ramsar were ‎determined 1.8, 1.62, 1.01, 0.76 and 0.67 % respectively. Hyoscine contents were determined 0.47, ‎‎0.23, 1.23, 0.16 and 0.09 % respectively. And amount of both total alkaloids were determined 2.66, ‎‎1.85, 2.24, 0.92 and 0.76 % respectively. In this study, the highest amount of atropine (1.8 %), and both ‎total alkaloids which extracted from all dried plant organs belong to the accessions from Ardebil and the ‎highest amount of hyoscine (0.46 %) were determined in the accessions from Tonekabon. The lowest ‎amount of hyoscine, atropine and both total alkaloids belong to the accessions were from Ramsar‎. Industrial and practical recommendations: According to the findings of this study, for extraction more atropine and collection of atropine and hyoscine from Atropa bladonna, the samples of Ardabil region can be recommended.

Keywords: Atropa belladonna Tropane Hyoscine Atropine Alkaloids
Study the ethno-veterinary of medicinal plants in Kerman province, Iran

Study the ethno-veterinary of medicinal plants in Kerman province, Iran

Authors: Abed Koohpayeh; Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Mohammad Mehdi Yazdanpanah Ravari; Elham Pourmohseni Nasab; Delaram Arjomand
( 25 downloads)
Abstract

Background & Aim: The aim of this research is investigation and familiarity with the important herbal drugs that have used for traditional curing of animal diseases in different areas of Kerman province, Iran. From a long time ago native farmers and tribes of different regions used the available natural herbs which existed in those regions to cure animal diseases in different areas of Kerman province. Experimental: In the present study, firstly the prepared questionnaires are used to gather information of traditional farmers and native tribes of the region regarding the use of herbs such as: when to use them, how to use them and the part of them which is used in the treatment of animal diseases and then the collection of natural herbs takes place by field search method. After that the collected herbs from different regions were dried and after the preparation of herbarium, they were transferred to Pharmacy School of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Results & Discussion: After investigation, 77 types of herbs were finally gathered from different areas of Kerman province which were used in the treatment of animal diseases by farmers and native tribes. The information related to each of these plants (when to use, how to use, and the part of the plant which is used) is recorded in the questionnaires. The identified herbs in traditional medicine are used as Ajuga chamaecistus in removing the lice and skin parasites in goat and sheep and Cercis siliquastrum in treatment of deep and infectious wound in livestock and Dendrosllera lessertii in treatment of colic and bloating in sheep in the treatment of different domestic animals. Industrial and practical recommendations: The results of this study showed that with respect to the rich amount of fluor in the province of Kerman from the herbal point of view and the long history of farming in this province, more studies in this area can pave the way for the production of new herbal medicines to cure animal diseases.

Keywords: Ethno veterinary Medicinal plants Kerman

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