International Journal of Korean History

International Journal of Korean History

Basic info

  • Publisher: Korea University, Center for Korean History
  • Country of publisher: korea, republic of
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2018/May/12

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: History
  • Publisher's keywords: Korean History
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY-NC
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2000
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Other
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '224' articles

History of Koguryŏ and China’s Northeast Asian Project

History of Koguryŏ and China’s Northeast Asian Project

Authors: Kyeong-chul Park
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The Koguryŏ Dynasty, established during the 3rd century B.C. around the Maek tribe is believed to have begun its function as a centralized entity in the Northeast Asia region. During the period between 1st century B.C. and 1st century A.D. aggressive regional expansion policy from the Koguryŏ made it possible to overcome its territorial limitations and weak economic basis. By the end of the 4th century A.D., Koguryŏ emerged as an empire that had acquired its own independent lebensraum in Northeast Asia. This research paper will delve into identifying actual founders of the Koguryŏ Dynasty and shed light on their lives prior to the actual establishment of the Dynasty. Then on, I will analyze the establishment process of Koguryŏ Dynasty. Thereafter, I will analyze the history of Koguryŏ Dynasty at three different stages: the despotic military state period, the period in which Koguryŏ emerged as an independent empire in Northeast Asia, and the era of war against the Sui and Tang dynasty. Upon completion of the above task, I will illustrate the importance of Koguryŏ history for Koreans. Finally, I attempt to unearth the real objectives why the Chinese academics are actively promoting the Northeast Asian Project.

Keywords: History of Koguryŏ, China’s Northeast, Asian Project
King Muryŏng’s Ascension to the Throne

King Muryŏng’s Ascension to the Throne

Authors: Yong-Hyuk Yoon
( 19 downloads)
Abstract

King Muryŏng was able to use the opportunity - the assassination of King Tongsŏng - to ascend to the throne of Paekje at the age of 40. While Muryŏng was the rightful heir to the throne from birth, the process through which he was finally able to ascend to the throne was fraught with many dramatic turmoil rivaled only by the background to his birth. The writer has already published a paper on the background of King Muryŏng’s birth1, where I argued that Muryŏng was born on an island now known as Kakarashima in Saga Prefecture; Kinshachi-jo while Konji was on his way to Japan in 462. Moreover, I expressed my support for the argument found in the Nihon Shoki (Chronicle of Japan) that Muryŏng was not the son of Konji as people believed, but rather the progeny of King Kaero. While these assertions were not new in themselves, I attempted to use them as the fundamentals with which to further delve into the veil of controversy, surrounding the background of Muryŏng in order to develop my own interpretation.

Keywords: King Muryŏng’s Ascension,
The Significance, Various Manifestations and Roles of Kwanŭm Tales as Found in Samguk Yusa

The Significance, Various Manifestations and Roles of Kwanŭm Tales as Found in Samguk Yusa

Authors: Tae-suk Kihl
( 33 downloads)
Abstract

In Samguk Yusa, Kwanŭm employs many different appearances when manifesting herself to humans1 (the divinity derived from the Indian Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, who was a man. Somehow, as Mahayana Buddhism developed in China, a change of gender occurred, and the divinity, whose Chinese name is Kuan Yin, became popularly known and worshipped as the “goddess of mercy”. Her name is pronounced Kwanŭm in Korean and Kannon in Japanese). For instance, she appears as a female monk in another person’s body, as an elderly woman, and as a beautiful young woman who attempts to tempt a monk. It is written that when Kwanŭm appears before people, it is to teach them about the great virtue of Buddha or to help humans in their period of suffering. And as such, manifestations of Kwanŭm found in Samguk Yusa are not a strange occurrence. Nevertheless, given the differences between herself and other Buddhas, it is only natural that people begin to wonder what the relationship is between her various appearances and her actual role as a Buddha.

Keywords: The Significance, Various Manifestations, Roles, Kwanŭm Tales
Low-class Commoners during the Koryŏ Dynasty

Low-class Commoners during the Koryŏ Dynasty

Authors: Nan-ok Kim
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

The Chosŏn society was one in which the yangban (aristocracy) wielded tremendous power. The role of women in this society was influenced greatly by the yangban class’ attempts to establish a patriarchal family order and a Confucian-based society. For example, women were forced, in accordance with neo-Confucian ideology, to remain chaste before marriage and barred from remarrying once their husbands had passed away. As far as the marriage system was concerned, the Chosŏn era saw a move away from the old tradition of the man moving into his in-laws house following the wedding (男歸女家婚 namgwiyŏgahon), with the woman now expected to move in with her husband’s family following the marriage (親迎制度 ch΄inyŏng jedo). Moreover, wives were rigidly divided into two categories: legitimate wife (ch΄ŏ) and concubines (ch΄ŏp). This period also saw a change in the legal standing of women with regards to inheritance, as the system was altered from the practice of equal, from a gender standpoint, rights to inheritance, to one in which the eldest son became the sole inheritor. These neo-Confucianist inspired changes contributed to the strengthening of the patriarchal system during the Chosŏn era. As a result of these changes, Chosŏn women’s rights and activities became increasingly restricted.

Keywords: Commoners, during, Koryŏ Dynasty
Women’s Life during the Chosŏn Dynasty

Women’s Life during the Chosŏn Dynasty

Authors: Hee-sook Han
( 20 downloads)
Abstract

The Chosŏn society was one in which the yangban (aristocracy) wielded tremendous power. The role of women in this society was influenced greatly by the yangban class’ attempts to establish a patriarchal family order and a Confucian-based society. For example, women were forced, in accordance with neo-Confucian ideology, to remain chaste before marriage and barred from remarrying once their husbands had passed away. As far as the marriage system was concerned, the Chosŏn era saw a move away from the old tradition of the man moving into his in-laws house following the wedding (男歸女家婚 namgwiyŏgahon), with the woman now expected to move in with her husband’s family following the marriage (親迎制度 ch΄inyŏng jedo). Moreover, wives were rigidly divided into two categories: legitimate wife (ch΄ŏ) and concubines (ch΄ŏp). This period also saw a change in the legal standing of women with regards to inheritance, as the system was altered from the practice of equal, from a gender standpoint, rights to inheritance, to one in which the eldest son became the sole inheritor. These neo-Confucianist inspired changes contributed to the strengthening of the patriarchal system during the Chosŏn era. As a result of these changes, Chosŏn women’s rights and activities became increasingly restricted.

Keywords: Life, Chosŏn Dynasty
Analysis of the Studies on Taedongpŏp from the Historical-institutional¹ Perspective

Analysis of the Studies on Taedongpŏp from the Historical-institutional¹ Perspective

Authors: Jung-chul Lee
( 14 downloads)
Abstract

The Chosŏn dynasty went through constant crisis during the 17th century. It experienced several debilitating wars, constant political intrigue, widespread famine, and outbreaks of highly contagious diseases. In fact, the 17th century saw more wars and turmoil than at any other time in the history of the dynasty. The two Manchu invasions, the Chŏngmyo horan of 1627 and the Pyŏngja horan of 1636, which took place before the Hideyoshi invasions, brought great havoc upon Chosŏn. Half a million people including the royal family and loyal subjects were forcibly relocated to China as war reparations at the end of the second Manchu invasion. This was particularly devastating for Chosŏn. In addition, this century was marked by frequent poor harvests and a widespread famine in 1670-71 in which nearly one million people starved to death. This nearly constant turmoil forced people, who were unable to establish roots anywhere, to wander from place to place. These conditions also created a serious financial crisis for the state.

Keywords: Taedongpŏp, Historical-institutional
Toward a Modern Society : History of the Korean Theatre in the Modern Period 1919~1940

Toward a Modern Society : History of the Korean Theatre in the Modern Period 1919~1940

Authors: Wonjae Jang
( 46 downloads)
Abstract

Two main features of Korean theatre history during the 1920s and 1930s were the occurrence of a modern theatre movement and the development of the commercial theatre . These two phenomena had a significant influence on one another throughout this period: The modern theatre movement stimulated commercial theatre in its performance conventions and in its sensationalism while the commercial theatre influenced the modern theatre in terms of acting skills and practical knowledge of theatre production. Korean theatre conventions were rapidly modernized during this period. All Korean theatre companies that planned to perform in urban areas had to prepare their performances with a fixed written text and a realistic acting style. The so-called guchidade style performance, meaning improvised actions, was no longer accepted by the urban audience, which led to an establishment of a new theatre convention in both the modern and the commercial theatre. This is why the 1920s and the 1930s is referred to as the Modern Era of the Korean theatre movement.

Keywords: Toward a Modern Society, History, Modern Period
Trends in the Study of the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Future Tasks : Third-party perspective on the origins of the war

Trends in the Study of the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Future Tasks : Third-party perspective on the origins of the war

Authors: Won-soo Kim
( 49 downloads)
Abstract

Recent world history has witnessed three wars, the Sino-Japanese War, Russo-Japanese War and the Korean War, that unfolded in and around the Korean peninsula that were ostensibly launched under the premise of preserving the independence of Korea and the freedom of the Korean peninsula. In the end however, all three of these conflicts failed to achieve their declared objective. Exactly one century ago, the Korean peninsula and Manchuria served as the background of the Russo-Japanese War, whose outcome would seal Korea’s fate as a Japanese colony. Giambattista Vico once observed that while God may have created nature, it is humans who are responsible for making history. In this regards, wars are also the responsibility of humans. Therefore, who should bear responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War, Japan or Russia? Or perhaps even the ‘Korean or Manchurian problems?’ The multitude of studies that have been conducted on the topic of the Russo-Japanese War over the last 100 years, and the international conferences held both in Korea and abroad on the subject, have yet toield a satisfactory answer as to the question of who is responsible for the outbreak of the war.

Keywords: Japanese, Korea, Future Tasks, Third-party perspective, origins
Russia’s Policy Towards Korea during the Russo-Japanese War

Russia’s Policy Towards Korea during the Russo-Japanese War

Authors: Bella Park
( 37 downloads)
Abstract

The period between the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries was one which saw Russia and Japan come into conflict with one another in East Asia. However, because of its economic and financial problems and of its inferior military numbers in the Fareast, the Russian government was unable to use the opportunity provided by the period leading up to the Russo-Japanese War to put in place the preparations needed to resolve the Korean peninsula problem in a manner advantageous to it. Further compounding matters was the fact that no common perception emerged amongst Russian policymakers with regards to the direction which East Asian policy should take. On one hand the Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte and his followers wanted to adopt a ‘peaceful’ course of action that would allow Russia to extend its economic hegemony over Korea and all of East Asia. Meanwhile, another more influential group consisting of conservative forces adhered to a stance which was based on an aggressive policy towards East Asia, a stance which was for the most part in line with that of Tsar Nicholas II. Because its nominal leader was A.M. Bezobrazov, this group is usually referred to as the Bezobrazov group. The significant influence which this group wielded over Russian foreign policy emerged as an important cause of what would become a turning point in Korean history and Russo-Korean relations, namely, the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War.

Keywords: Policy, Korea, Russo-Japanese War
Direction of Public Opinion during the Taehan Empire and the People’s Perception of Their Era during the Period of Russo-Japanese Conflict-With a special focus on the Hwangsŏng sinmun

Direction of Public Opinion during the Taehan Empire and the People’s Perception of Their Era during the Period of Russo-Japanese Conflict-With a special focus on the Hwangsŏng sinmun

Authors: Yun-hee Kim
( 23 downloads)
Abstract

There have been many studies conducted on the subject of how the Hwangsŏng sinmun attempted to use its articles to get the Korean population to support the notion of the forging of an alliance with Japan that was based on the notion of Samguk kongyŏngron (the formation of an alliance between Korea, Japan, and China designed to achieve coprosperity).1 These previous studies have tended to point out the fact that the Hwangsŏng sinmun focused exclusively on the crisis aspect of the Yongamp΄o Incident which occurred prior to the outbreak of the RussoJapanese War, and that the newspaper did not show any signs of leaning towards Japan until articles began to appear calling for the establishment of a Russian sphere of influence in Manchuria in exchange for the latter’s acquiescence of a similar Japanese sphere in Korea in September (Manhwan kyohwansŏl); moreover, they have pointed out that articles calling for Korea’s implementation of the chakangron (self-strengthening) in order to avoid having to become overly dependent on either Japan and Russia appeared on a consistent basis in 1903.

Keywords: Public Opinion, Taehan Empire, People’s Perception, Era, Period of Russo, Japanese Conflict
Korea and Japan During the Russo-Japanese War-With a Special Focus on the Japanese Occupation Forces in Korea

Korea and Japan During the Russo-Japanese War-With a Special Focus on the Japanese Occupation Forces in Korea

Authors: Min-kyo Seo
( 39 downloads)
Abstract

The Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars were colonial conflicts whose outcomes resulted in Japan emerging as the dominant power on the Korean peninsula. While a modernized Japan was granted control over Taiwan as the bounty for its victory in the Sino-Japanese War, it soon found itself involved in a long-drawn out conflict to establish its actual control over the island. Conversely, one of the biggest objectives which the Japanese attempted to secure through the Russo-Japanese War was to bring Korea under its effective control. Thus, if the seizing of Taiwan can be identified as the overarching Japanese motivation to stage the SinoJapanese War, then the colonization of Korea can be seen as the main goal which Tokyo sought to achieve through the Russo-Japanese War. The Chinese defeat at the hands of the Japanese in 1894-95 made evident to the western powers the backwards state of the Chinese military, and subsequently resulted in the breakdown of the balance of power in East Asia. Moreover, the Sino-Japanese War also had the unexpected effect of clearing the way for Russian expansion into East Asia. The appearance of Russia on the East Asian stage, which emerged as a great concern not only for Japan but England as well, in turn, resulted in putting Japan andRussia on a collision course with one another.

Keywords: Korea, Japan, Russo-Japanese War,, Special Focus, Japanese Occupation
Sergei Witte and the Russo-Japanese War

Sergei Witte and the Russo-Japanese War

Authors: B.V. Anan'ich / S.A. Lebedev
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

During the period spanning from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th, Sergei Witte, who served as Russian Finance Minister (1892-1903) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (October 1905- April 1906), emerged as one of the most influential Russian policymakers, and as the architect of East Asian policy under Alexander III and Nicholas II.1 Witte’s involvement in Russia’s East Asian policy put Russia on a collision course with both Europe and Japan over the fate of Ching China. The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad emerged as the main impetus for Russia’s expansionist policies in East Asia. The Committee of Ministers began to hold discussions on possible routes for this proposed Trans-Siberian Railroad following Alexander III’s proclamation to this effect in May 1882. The official announcement regarding the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad was made in March 1891, with a ceremony to mark the actual onset of construction held on May 19 of that same year.2 However, it was only in December 1892 with the appointment of Witte as finance minister, and his subsequent resolution of the project’s shortage of funds, that the railway project began to gather steam. In December 1892 the Siberian Railroad Committee was established, with the heir apparent Nicholas appointed as chairman. The appointment of Nicholas as chairman of this committee resulted in the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad becoming a pet project for the future Tsar who would ascend the throne in 1894. Moreover, these circumstances allowed Witte to expand his influence. With his power suddenly expanded, Witte started to look outside of his finance ministry and involve himself in important government policy in other fields.

Keywords: Sergei Witte, Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War and the Root-Takahira Agreement

The Russo-Japanese War and the Root-Takahira Agreement

Authors: Jeong-soo Choi
( 65 downloads)
Abstract

On November 30, 1908 American Secretary of State Eliuh Root and the Japanese Ambassador in Washington Takahira Kogoro initialed an agreement which has now come to be known as the Root-Takahira Agreement. In this agreement, both governments agreed to: 1) maintain the status quo in the Pacific; 2) assure equal opportunity to develop trade and industry in China; 3) recognize the territories possessed by each country in the Pacific region; 4) respect China’s territorial integrity and independence.1 In other words, this agreement contained two overarching themes, namely, the open door policy and respect for each other’s territorial possessions.

Keywords: Russo-Japanese War, Root-Takahira Agreement
The Russian ‘Diplomatic Revolution’ and Japan’s Annexation of Korea(1905-1910)

The Russian ‘Diplomatic Revolution’ and Japan’s Annexation of Korea(1905-1910)

Authors: Deok-kyu Choi
( 13 downloads)
Abstract

Russia’s ‘diplomatic revolution’ was the result of the search for a new policy to overcome the international and domestic difficulties which Russia faced in the aftermath of its defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Moreover, this revolution marked a turning point in the history of the Tsarist government’s foreign policy, which suddenly went from expansion to compromise and reconciliation. This new diplomatic course which emerged in the aftermath of the war, with the new Foreign Minister A.P. Izvolskii at the forefront, was based on pragmatism. The two most prominent achievements of Izvolskii’s diplomatic tenure, the AngloRussia Convention of 1907 and the Russo-Japanese agreements of 1907 and 1910, were made possible by Russia’s abandonment of its foreign policy based on political tradition and ideology in favor of one governed by pragmatism. Such agreements were designed to put relations with England and Japan, which had long been considered to be enemies of Russia, on a more amicable footing.

Keywords: ‘Diplomatic Revolution’, Japan’s Annexation

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