Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Basic info

  • Publisher: Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
  • Country of publisher: india
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Feb/24

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Medicine
  • Publisher's keywords: Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacy, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical Management, Health Care Management, Hospital Management, Biochemistry, Regulatory Affairs
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Full-text formats available: PDF

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): Yes 100 USD
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Editorial information

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: Yes
  • Year open access content began: 2016
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '151' articles

THE ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AMONG YEMENI PATIENTS IN SANA’A CITY

THE ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AMONG YEMENI PATIENTS IN SANA’A CITY

Authors: Arwa M Othman, Eshtiaq A Alyosfi, Hassan A AL-Shamahy
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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications and early death. Etiology of RA is unknown. It is assumed that environmental factors initiate RA development in genetically susceptible individuals. Epstein- Barr Virus (EBV) stimulates polyclonal B cell activation and has been suggested to play a role in RA pathogenesis. Our study aimed to study the association between EBV and RA. One hundred and sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Eighty individuals were clinically diagnosed to have RA and confirmed by anti-CCP3 test. The remaining 80 individuals were healthy controls matched for age and sex. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The crude prevalence rate of EBV-VCA IgM antibodies among patients was (21.2%) while in healthy individuals was (8.7%) with significant OR equals to 2.8 times for RA patient’s. The female prevalence rate of EBV-VCA IgM antibodies was (21.8%) higher than of male (18.7%). Moreover, the crude prevalence rate of EBV-VCA IgG antibodies for RA patients was (91.3%) while in healthy individuals was (76.3%) with significant or equals to 3.2 times for RA patients’. The female prevalence rate of EBV-VCA IgG antibodies was (95.3%) higher than of male (75%). EBV-VCA IgG and IgM antibodies titers were elevated in RA patients than in healthy controls. However, the causative relationship between EBV and RA is complex and involves different mechanisms.

Keywords: Anti EBV-VCA IgG antibodies, anti EBV-VCA IgM antibodies, Epstein- Barr Virus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Yemeni
SERUM POSITIVITY OF ANA AND ASMA AMONG KHAT AND NONKHAT CHEWERS AS MARKERS FOR AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS TYPE 1

SERUM POSITIVITY OF ANA AND ASMA AMONG KHAT AND NONKHAT CHEWERS AS MARKERS FOR AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS TYPE 1

Authors: Arwa M Othman, Eman A Hamzah, Jamil A Almughales, Abdullah Al-Mikhlafy
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Abstract

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology. It has been proposed that certain herbs such as black cohosh and dai-saiko might trigger AIH. Khat is an ever green tree whose leaves have been chewed by people in Yemen where AIH is common. Aim of present study was to measure antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) as serum markers for AIH type1 in healthy people who chew and do not chew khat. It also aimed to determine some other risk factors for ANA and ASMA positivity. A total of 100 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. They were divided into: Daily khat chewers and non-khat chewers. Three ml peripheral blood was withdrawn from each participant. Blood samples were tested for ANA and ASMA using indirect immunofluorescence assay.The age of khat chewers ranged from 30-60 years with mean age 40.4±7.6 years. Non-khat chewers age ranged from 30-57 years with mean age 39.9±6.2 years. The majority of khat chewers and non-chewers were in age groups 30-39 and 40-49 years old. There is no association between khat chewing and ANA or ASMA serum positivity (χ2 = 0.33, P = 0.39 and χ2 = 1.5, P = 0.16; respectively). However, ANA and ASMA positivity were significantly increased with age of the participants (χ2 = 7.79, P = 0.044 and χ2 = 10.6, P = 0.011, respectively). khat chewing has no association with ANA and ASMA positivity. Nevertheless, ANA and ASMA positivity has an association with aging.

Keywords: Antinuclear autoantibodies, anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies, autoimmune hepatitis, Khat chewing, Yemen
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF OMEPRAZOLE AND ASPIRIN USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF OMEPRAZOLE AND ASPIRIN USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM

Authors: Vani R, Sunitha M
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Abstract

A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Aspirin and Omeprazole in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using C18 column (Agilent, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of Methanol and 0.1 M Dipotassium Phosphate buffer (pH 3) in the ratio of 60:40 v/v. The detection was carried out at 256 nm. The method was linear over the concentration range for Omeprazole 50-250 μg/ml and for Aspirin 10-50 μg/ml. The recoveries of Omeprazole and Aspirin were found to be 100.07 and 100.06% respectively. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing combined dosage form.

Keywords: Omeprazole, Aspirin, reverse phase HPLC, validation
IN SILICO LIGAND-BASED 2D PHARMACOPHORE GENERATION FOR H+/K+ ATPASE INHIBITORS

IN SILICO LIGAND-BASED 2D PHARMACOPHORE GENERATION FOR H+/K+ ATPASE INHIBITORS

Authors: Sidra Ajmal, Shanza Khan
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Abstract

At the beginning of the 20th century, Peptic Ulcer became the most prevalent disease as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) proved ineffective. Researches proved proton pump inhibitors as most successful drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Hence, a ligand based pharmacophore was generated on Ligand Scout based on fifteen selected H+/K+ ATPase inhibitors. A pharmacophore model with three Hydrogen bond acceptors, one Hydrogen bond donor and one Hydrophobic Domain was developed. The distance between these features was estimated on Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) software. The range between HBA-HBD was found to be 1.89-2.96A. The range between HBD-HP was 4.00-5.46A and range between HP-HBA was 1.89-2.96A. This research study will thus help in designing new and effective drugs for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

Keywords: Peptic Ulcer, NSAIDs, ligand, pharmacophore, visual molecular dynamics
KIDNEY STONES FORMATION AND USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIUROLITHIATIC AGENTS

KIDNEY STONES FORMATION AND USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIUROLITHIATIC AGENTS

Authors: Priti Arya, Savita Pandey, Vipin Verma
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Abstract

There is an old and famous fact “the garden is the poor man’s apothecary” and treatment of each and every disease is hidden in nature. Medicinal plants are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Since ages, herbs are being used for treating different ailments in different parts of world by different communities. A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. Urolithiasis is a complex process that occurs from series of several physicochemical event including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Present article deals with reason, types of kidney stones, risk factors associated, diagnosis and treatment methods including many medicinal plants as herbal option for treatment of urinary stones.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, kidney stone, urolithiasis
AN UPDATED REVIEW ON TRANSFERSOMES: A NOVEL VESICULAR SYSTEM FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

AN UPDATED REVIEW ON TRANSFERSOMES: A NOVEL VESICULAR SYSTEM FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

Authors: Neelam Chauhan, Kapil Kumar, Navin Chandra Chandra Pant
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Abstract

Transdermal route is an interesting option in this respect because a transdermal route is convenient and safe, avoid first pass metabolism, predictable and extended duration of activity, minimizing undesirable side effects, utility of short half-life drugs, improving physiological and pharmacological responses, avoiding the fluctuation in drug levels and inter and intra-patient variations. However it has got its own limitations its inability to transport large molecules, inability to overcome the barrier properties of stratum corneum and many more. Formulating the drug in a transfersome is one such approach to solve these problems. Transfersome, is an ultradeformable vesicle, elastic in nature which can squeeze itself through a pore which is many times smaller than its size owing to its elasticity.

Keywords: Transdermal route, transfersome, first pass metabolism
COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: CURRENT TRENDS AND APPROACHES

COLON SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: CURRENT TRENDS AND APPROACHES

Authors: Obot Solomon Sunday
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Abstract

The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. The colon targeted drug delivery system is used for the treatment of various diseases related to colon like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, etc and systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. It can be possible to target disease site thus lowers the requirement of higher doses of drug and reducing the dosage frequency and cost of the drugs. It also lowers the systemic side effects. For successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in the upper portion of the gastric intestinal tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. This article gives detail description on anatomy and physiology of the colon and approaches utilized for colon specific drug delivery like prodrugs, pH and time dependent, prodrug, osmotic pressure controlled drug delivery.

Keywords: Colon, Crohn’s disease, prodrugs, osmotic pressure controlled drug delivery
FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: A PROMISING APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY

FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: A PROMISING APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY

Authors: Vaishali Chauhan, Kapil Kumar, Deepak Teotia
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Abstract

Aim of novel drug delivery system is to enhance safety and efficacy of drug molecules by formulating a convenient dosage form for administration and to achieve better patient compliance. One such approach led to development of fast dissolving tablets. Nowa-days fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) gaining significance with wide variety of drugs serving many purposes. These are novel types of tablets that disintegrate/dissolve/ disperse in saliva within few seconds (less than 60 seconds) without chewing and additional water. The basic approach used in development of FDTs is the use of superdisintegrants and the elimination of bitterness. FDTs reduces the disadvantages of conventional dosage form especially dysphasia (difficulty in swallowing) in pediatric and geriatric patients. These oral dosage forms have many benefits such as self medication, increased compliance, ease of manufacturing and noninvasive. This review presents description of fast dissolving tablets including need for development, challenges in formulation, suitability of drug candidates, composition, various technologies involved, advantages, disadvantages, and evaluation parameters.

Keywords: Disintegration, fast dissolving tablet, superdisintegrants
A REVIEW ON GOLD NANOPRTICLES SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

A REVIEW ON GOLD NANOPRTICLES SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

Authors: Pradeep Pradnya Wadekar, Jyoti Ashok Patil
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Abstract

Gold nano particles (GNP) have exceptional biocompatibility and possess unique structural, electronic, magnetic, optical, catalytic and molecular recognition properties. Hence GNPs are very attractive for many biological applications. Being noble metal, the GNPs are resistant to oxide formation. Their electronic, magnetic and optical properties are size dependent. The optical properties of gold nano particles depend on nano particles size, shape, aggregation state, and local environment and are tuneable throughout the visible and near-infrared region. The current paper gives a brief review of different methods of synthesis of GNP with uniform size and shape and characterization of GNP by UV spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform Infra Red spectroscopy along with applications of GNPs

Keywords: Gold nano particles, noble metal
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CARBAMAZEPINE LOZENGES

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CARBAMAZEPINE LOZENGES

Authors: Onyeka Ifeanyi Peter, Ukwe Chioma Ifeoma
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Abstract

Lozenges are the flavoured solid, unit dosage medicated dosage forms usually in the sweetened base intended to be sucked and held in the mouth or pharynx containing one or more medicaments. Lozenges were developed in 20th century and is still under commercial production. These are medicated confections designed for local as well as systemic therapy. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications. In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare and evaluate the sugar based medicated Carbamazepine lozenzes to improve bioavailability and increase patient compliance specially for those patients who have difficulty in swallowing. The lozenges were prepared using sucrose as base; HPMC K4M, methyl cellulose were used as polymers. Eudragit was used as taste masking agent. Formulations were prepared by heating and congealing method on laboratory scale All the formulations prepared were subjected to various physicochemical parameters like hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content and in vitro dissolution studies. Stability studies of selected formulations of batch CL4 were also carried out at 40/75% relative humidity for 6 months for a period of six months. There wasn’t any substantial interaction between the drugs, flavor and color and other parameters and the prepared formulations were found to be stable.

Keywords: Lozenges, HPMC K4M, Carbamazepine (CBZ), swallowing, in vitro dissolution, stability studies
ORAL C.ALBICANS COLONIZATION AND NON-CANDIDA ALBICANS CANDIDA COLONIZATION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, YEMEN

ORAL C.ALBICANS COLONIZATION AND NON-CANDIDA ALBICANS CANDIDA COLONIZATION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, YEMEN

Authors: Abbas M Al-Kebsi, Arwa M Othman, Al-Kasem M A Abbas, Ebtihal M Madar, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy, Khaled M Al-Gaffari, Samera M. Naser Daname, Fuad L. Motar...
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Abstract

Candida albicans is diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. This investigation aimed to study the oral C. albicans colonization (OCC) and Non-Candida albicans Candida colonization (ONCACC) and risk factors of OCC in healthy University students. This cross sectional laboratory study was carried between January 2014 and July 2014. A total of 265 healthy students were included in this study, 131 males and 134 females. Demographic and clinical and risk factor variables were registered in predesigned questionnaire. Standard methods were used for collection oral specimens, culturing and identifying Candida species. The crude rate of OCC was 17.7% and the crude rate of ONCACC was 29.1%. C.tropicalisand C.glabrata were the most common species isolated after C .albicans. Statistically significant association of OCC (< 0.05), was identified between the gender (male) (OR = 3.7), smoking (OR = 14.6), denture wearing (OR = 6.2), dental bridge (OR =5.4), orthodontics (OR = 2.5), the reduced saliva flow rate (OR = 11.3), previous antibiotics users (OR=2.99), and Qat chewers (OR = 5.2).Our results are important for the development of strategies to eliminate these indicators of risk and significantly reduce Candida species colonization and oral Candida infections in young healthy adults and in general in Yemen community. The data also suggests that the prevalence rate of OCC was relatively high and it was affected by presence of prostheses, orthodontics, behaviors, xerostomia certain sociodemographic characteristics, which indicate the need for comprehensive, scheduled programs of healthcare educations.

Keywords: Oral C. albicans colonization (OCC), Non-Candida albicans Candida
PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRESCRIBING AMONG IN-PATIENTS OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN YEMEN: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRESCRIBING AMONG IN-PATIENTS OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN YEMEN: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

Authors: Ali Abdullah Al-Mehdar, Ahmed Ghalib Al-Akydy
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Abstract

The irrational use of antimicrobials leads to a number of consequences in term of cost, drug interactions, hospital stay and bacterial resistance, and a substantial economic burden on health care systems. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial use among hospitalized patients. The treatment-charts for 384 inpatients admitted to the major wards (medicine, surgery, pediatric and gynecology) in the teaching hospital and receiving antimicrobials were reviewed for the period from February to May 2016. The enrolled patients were observed from admission till discharge. Descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and institutional ethical committee approval was obtained prior to the study. The majority of patients were females (52.86%), their age from 1 to 16 years (59.63%). The common diagnosis for patients was respiratory tract infections (30.21%) followed by gastrointestinal infections (19.53%). Ceftriaxone (50.52%) was the top most frequently used antimicrobials followed by ampicillin (37.50%), cefotaxime (16.15%), cefuroxime (15.89%), metronidazole (11.72%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (5.99%). The majority of the admitted patients (63.54%) received two or more antimicrobials. 45.4% of physicians confirmed the influence of drug companies and their drug promotion on their antimicrobial prescribing. The evidence of high prescribing rate of ceftriaxone in the presence of other available, low-price and suitable antimicrobials reflected irrational prescribing and this may be responsible on developing resistance against ceftriaxone and other cephalosporins.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, prescribing, ceftriaxone, Yemen
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CILNIDIPINE

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CILNIDIPINE

Authors: Nweje-Anyalowu Paul C, Anyalogbu Ernest A A, White Alalibo Jim
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Abstract

At present scenario the drug regimen based on circadian rhythm is recently gaining much attention worldwide by researchers. Justification behind it is that, there are various diseases like asthma, hypertension, and arthritis show circadian variation that demand time scheduled drug release for effective drug action. A chronodelivery system, based on biological rhythms, is a state-of the- art technology for drug delivery. The aim of present work is formulate and evaluate a press coated pulsatile release tablets of Cilnidipine using an admixture of hydrophilic polymer i.e. hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and pH sensitive polymers (ethyl cellulose, eudragit S-100) in order to achieve a predetermined lag time for chronopharmacotherapy of Hypertension. Cilnidipine is the novel calcium antagonist accompanied with L-type and N-type calcium channel blocking function used for the treatment of hypertension. The tablets prepared were evaluated for different properties like bulk density, tapped density, Angle of repose and Carr’s index), hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release study.

Keywords: Chronotherapy, pulsatile, hypertension, circadian variation, press coated tablets
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING THIN FILMS OF ARIPIPRAZOLE

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING THIN FILMS OF ARIPIPRAZOLE

Authors: Edenta Chidi, Nwobodo Ndubuisi Nwobodo, Offiah Raymond O
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Abstract

In the current pharmaceutical research fast dissolving films are playing an important role. In the present research, five different rapidly dissolving films of Aripiprazole were prepared successfully by using different polymer such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-E5 LV), polyvinyl pyrollidone by means of solvent casting method. Citric acid as saliva stimulating agent, mannitol as sweetening agent and menthol was used as flavoring agent. Aripiprazole, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The prepared films were evaluated for different parameters including thickness, mass uniformity, pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, cumulative percent release, in-vitro dissolution test and accelerated stability studies. In-vitro dissolution studies were performed dissolution guidelines for about 30 minutes. For analyzing the mechanism of drug release kinetics of the films, the data obtained were fitted to various kinetic equations of zero order, first order, Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas model. On the basis of different evaluated parameters formulation of batch F4 was found to be optimum formulation. The optimized formulation F4 was evaluated for the stability studies at 400 C, 75% RH for 45 days. From the evaluation, it was found that there is no significant change in appearance, pH, folding endurance, drug content, in vitro disintegration and percentage drug release.

Keywords: Fast dissolving thin films, Aripiprazole, first pass metabolism, bioavailability, In-vitro dissolution studies, release kinetics
SERO-PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS AMONG DENTAL CLINIC WORKERS IN SANA’A CITY- YEMEN AND THE RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR ITS INFECTION

SERO-PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS AMONG DENTAL CLINIC WORKERS IN SANA’A CITY- YEMEN AND THE RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR ITS INFECTION

Authors: Abbas M Al-Kebsi, Arwa M Othman, Al-Kasem M A Abbas, Ebtihal M Madar, Hassan A. Al-Shamahy, Khaled M Al-Gaffari, Samera M. Naser Daname, Fuad L. Motar...
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Abstract

Dental clinic workers (DCWs) in Yemen have an additional risk of getting infected with HCV from their work place and till now there is no study in prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among DCWs. The purposes of this survey were to evaluate what proportion of dentists and dental assistants had serological evidence of current or previous HCV infection, what were their risk factors for exposure, and what was the frequency of use and effectiveness of barrier methods to prevent HCV infection. Data were acquired from a cross sectional survey conducted among DCWs in 2014 at the Faculty of Dentistry, Sana’a University, in Sana’a city. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per DCW category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HCV antibodies. The study included 246 dentists and 263 dental assistants; the sero-prevalence of current hepatitis C virus infection was 1.6%. Prevalence of needle stick injuries, exposure to skin and to mucous membranes were 45.6%, 26.5% and 25.3% respectively. Cuts were also common with 41.1% of participants reporting a cut in a period of one year preceding the survey. Regular use of gloves, face mask, and glasses were reported by 74.4%, 28.3% and 25.3% of participants respectively. There was a highly significant associated with risk of HCV infection with needle stick injuries (OR = 8.6,P = 0.01, cuts (OR = 4.4,P = 0.04), contact with blood/saliva in skin (OR=20.8,P < 0.001). But longer duration in service was not significantly associated with risk of infection (OR = 2, P value = 0.34). In conclusion, the prevalence of HCV infection was high among Yemeni DCWs and eexposure to potentially infectious body fluids was high which might lead to high rate of transmit HCV to DCWs, therefore ensures a safer work environment is important in control and prevention of HCV in DCWs in Yemen.

Keywords: HCV, DCWs, Sana’a city, Yemen

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